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- Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät (7) (remove)

We study origin, parameter optimization, and thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal rocking ratchets based on fractional subdiffusion within a generalized non-Markovian Langevin equation approach. A corresponding multi-dimensional Markovian embedding dynamics is realized using a set of auxiliary Brownian particles elastically coupled to the central Brownian particle (see video on the journal web site). We show that anomalous subdiffusive transport emerges due to an interplay of nonlinear response and viscoelastic effects for fractional Brownian motion in periodic potentials with broken space-inversion symmetry and driven by a time-periodic field. The anomalous transport becomes optimal for a subthreshold driving when the driving period matches a characteristic time scale of interwell transitions. It can also be optimized by varying temperature, amplitude of periodic potential and driving strength. The useful work done against a load shows a parabolic dependence on the load strength. It grows sublinearly with time and the corresponding thermodynamic efficiency decays algebraically in time because the energy supplied by the driving field scales with time linearly. However, it compares well with the efficiency of normal diffusion rocking ratchets on an appreciably long time scale.

During an unusually massive filament eruption on 7 June 2011, SDO/AIA imaged for the first time significant EUV emission around a magnetic reconnection region in the solar corona. The reconnection occurred between magnetic fields of the laterally expanding CME and a neighbouring active region. A pre-existing quasi-separatrix layer was activated in the process. This scenario is supported by data-constrained numerical simulations of the eruption. Observations show that dense cool filament plasma was re-directed and heated in situ, producing coronal-temperature emission around the reconnection region. These results provide the first direct observational evidence, supported by MHD simulations and magnetic modelling, that a large-scale re-configuration of the coronal magnetic field takes place during solar eruptions via the process of magnetic reconnection.

Understanding the magnetic configuration of the source regions of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is vital in order to determine the trigger and driver of these events. Observations of four CME productive active regions are presented here, which indicate that the pre-eruption magnetic configuration is that of a magnetic flux rope. The flux ropes are formed in the solar atmosphere by the process known as flux cancellation and are stable for several hours before the eruption. The observations also indicate that the magnetic structure that erupts is not the entire flux rope as initially formed, raising the question of whether the flux rope is able to undergo a partial eruption or whether it undergoes a transition in specific flux rope configuration shortly
before the CME.

Communicating location-specific information to pedestrians is a challenging task which can be aided by user-friendly digital technologies. In this paper, landmark visibility analysis, as a means for developing more usable pedestrian navigation systems, is discussed. Using an algorithmic framework for image-based 3D analysis, this method integrates a 3D city model with identified landmarks and produces raster visibility layers for each one. This output enables an Android phone prototype application to indicate the visibility of landmarks from the user's actual position. Tested in the field, the method achieves sufficient accuracy for the context of use and improves navigation efficiency and effectiveness.

Proposing relevant perturbations to biological signaling networks is central to many problems in biology and medicine because it allows for enabling or disabling certain biological outcomes. In contrast to quantitative methods that permit fine-grained (kinetic) analysis, qualitative approaches allow for addressing large-scale networks. This is accomplished by more abstract representations such as logical networks. We elaborate upon such a qualitative approach aiming at the computation of minimal interventions in logical signaling networks relying on Kleene's three-valued logic and fixpoint semantics. We address this problem within answer set programming and show that it greatly outperforms previous work using dedicated algorithms.

The course timetabling problem can be generally defined as the task of assigning a number of lectures to a limited set of timeslots and rooms, subject to a given set of hard and soft constraints. The modeling language for course timetabling is required to be expressive enough to specify a wide variety of soft constraints and objective functions. Furthermore, the resulting encoding is required to be extensible for capturing new constraints and for switching them between hard and soft, and to be flexible enough to deal with different formulations. In this paper, we propose to make effective use of ASP as a modeling language for course timetabling. We show that our ASP-based approach can naturally satisfy the above requirements, through an ASP encoding of the curriculum-based course timetabling problem proposed in the third track of the second international timetabling competition (ITC-2007). Our encoding is compact and human-readable, since each constraint is individually expressed by either one or two rules. Each hard constraint is expressed by using integrity constraints and aggregates of ASP. Each soft constraint S is expressed by rules in which the head is the form of penalty (S, V, C), and a violation V and its penalty cost C are detected and calculated respectively in the body. We carried out experiments on four different benchmark sets with five different formulations. We succeeded either in improving the bounds or producing the same bounds for many combinations of problem instances and formulations, compared with the previous best known bounds.

In various biological systems and small scale technological applications particles transiently bind to a cylindrical surface. Upon unbinding the particles diffuse in the vicinal bulk before rebinding to the surface. Such bulk-mediated excursions give rise to an effective surface translation, for which we here derive and discuss the dynamic equations, including additional surface diffusion. We discuss the time evolution of the number of surface-bound particles, the effective surface mean squared displacement, and the surface propagator. In particular, we observe sub- and superdiffusive regimes. A plateau of the surface mean-squared displacement reflects a stalling of the surface diffusion at longer times. Finally, the corresponding first passage problem for the cylindrical geometry is analysed.