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For the Lagrangian L = G lnG where G is the Gauss-Bonnet curvature scalar we deduce the field equation and solve it in closed form for 3-flat Friedmann models using a state-finder parametrization. Further we show that among all Lagrangians F(G) this L is the only one not having the form G(r) with a real constant r but possessing a scale-invariant field equation. This turns out to be one of its analogies to f(R) theories in two-dimensional space-time. In the appendix, we systematically list several formulas for the decomposition of the Riemann tensor in arbitrary dimensions n, which are applied in the main deduction for n = 4.

We deduce a new formula for the perihelion advance Theta of a test particle in the Schwarzschild black hole by applying a newly developed nonlinear transformation within the Schwarzschild space-time. By this transformation we are able to apply the well-known formula valid in the weak-field approximation near infinity also to trajectories in the strong-field regime near the horizon of the black hole. The resulting formula has the structure Theta = c(1) - c(2) ln(c(3)(2) - e(2)) with positive constants c(1,2,3) depending on the angular momentum of the test particle. It is especially useful for orbits with large eccentricities e < c(3) < 1 showing that Theta -> infinity as e -> c(3).

We classify the existent Birkhoff-type theorems into four classes: first, in field theory, the theorem states the absence of helicity 0- and spin 0-parts of the gravitational field. Second, in relativistic astrophysics, it is the statement that the gravitational far-field of a spherically symmetric star carries, apart from its mass, no information about the star; therefore, a radially oscillating star has a static gravitational far-field. Third, in mathematical physics, Birkhoff's theorem reads: up to singular exceptions of measure zero, the spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's vacuum field equation with can be expressed by the Schwarzschild metric; for , it is the Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric instead. Fourth, in differential geometry, any statement of the type: every member of a family of pseudo-Riemannian space-times has more isometries than expected from the original metric ansatz, carries the name Birkhoff-type theorem. Within the fourth of these classes we present some new results with further values of dimension and signature of the related spaces; including them are some counterexamples: families of space-times where no Birkhoff-type theorem is valid. These counterexamples further confirm the conjecture, that the Birkhoff-type theorems have their origin in the property, that the two eigenvalues of the Ricci tensor of 2-D pseudo-Riemannian spaces always coincide, a property not having an analogy in higher dimensions. Hence, Birkhoff-type theorems exist only for those physical situations which are reducible to 2-D.

In this Letter we give some general considerations about circularly symmetric, static space-times in 2 + 1 dimensions, focusing first on the surprising (at the time) existence of the BTZ black hole solution. We show that BTZ black holes and Schwarzschild black holes in 3 + 1 dimensions originate from different definitions of a black hole. There are two by-products of this general discussion: (i) we give a new and simple derivation of (2 + 1)-dimensional Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time; (ii) we present an exact solution to (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity coupled to a self-interacting real scalar field. The spatial part of the metric of this solution is flat but the temporal part behaves asymptotically like AdS space-time. The scalar field has logarithmic behavior as one would expect for a massless scalar field in flat space-time. The solution can be compared to gravitating scalar field solutions in 3 + 1 dimensions but with certain oddities connected with the (2 + 1)-dimensional character of the space-time. The solution is unique to 2 + 1 dimensions; it does not carry over to 3 + 1 dimensions.

We study a class of isotropic cosmologies in the fourth-order gravity with Lagrangians of the form L = f(R) + k(G) where R and G are the Ricci and Gauss-Bonnet scalars, respectively. A general discussion is given on the conditions under which this gravitational Lagrangian is scale-invariant or almost scale-invariant. We then apply this general background to the specific case L = alpha R-2 + beta Gln G with constants alpha, beta. We find closed form cosmological solutions for this case. One interesting feature of this choice of f(R) and k(G) is that for very small negative value of the parameter beta, the Lagrangian L = R-2/3 + beta Gln G leads to the replacement of the exact de Sitter solution coming from L = R-2 (which is a local attractor) to an exact, power-law inflation solution a(t) = t(p) = t(-3/beta) which is also a local attractor. This shows how one can modify the dynamics from de Sitter to power-law inflation by the addition of a Gln G-term.

In this paper we give some general considerations about circularly symmetric, static space-times in 2+1 dimensions, focusing first on the surprising (at the time) existence of the BTZ black hole solution. We show that BTZ black holes and Schwarzschild black holes in 3+1 dimensions originate from different definitions of a black hole. There are two by-products of this general discussion: (i) we give a new and simple derivation of 2+1 dimensional Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time; (ii) we present an exact solution to 2+1 dimensional gravity coupled to a self-interacting real scalar field. The spatial part of the metric of this solution is flat but the temporal part behaves asymptotically like AdS space-time. The scalar field has logarithmic behavior as one would expect for a massless scalar field in flat space- time. The solution can be compared to gravitating scalar field solutions in 3+1 dimensions but with certain oddities connected with the 2+1 dimensional character of the space-time. The solution is unique to 2+1 dimensions; it does not carry over to 3+1 dimensions.

We study a broad class of isotropic vacuum cosmologies in fourth-order gravity under the condition that the gravitational Lagrangian be scale-invariant or almost scale-invariant. The gravitational Lagrangians considered will be of the form L = f(R) + k(G) where R and G are the Ricci and Gauss-Bonnet scalars respectively. Specifically we take f(R) = R^2n and k(G) = G^n or k(G) = G ln G. We find solutions in closed form for a spatially flat Friedmann space-time and interpret their asymptotic early-time and late-time behaviour as well as their inflationary stages. One unique example which we discuss is the case of a very small negative value of the parameter b in the Lagrangian L = R^2 + b G ln G which leads to the replacement of the exact de Sitter solution from L = R^2 (being a local attractor) to a power-law inflation exact solution also representing a local attractor. This shows how one can modify the dynamics from de Sitter to power-law inflation by the addition of the G ln G-term.

We classify the existent Birkhoff-type theorems into four classes: First, in field theory, the theorem states the absence of helicity 0- and spin 0-parts of the gravitational field. Second, in relativistic astrophysics, it is the statement that the gravitational far-field of a spherically symmetric star carries, apart from its mass, no information about the star; therefore, a radially oscillating star has a static gravitational far-field. Third, in mathematical physics, Birkhoff's theorem reads: up to singular exceptions of measure zero, the spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's vacuum field equation with Lambda = 0 can be expressed by the Schwarzschild metric; for Lambda unequal 0, it is the Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric instead. Fourth, in differential geometry, any statement of the type: every member of a family of pseudo-Riemannian space-times has more isometries than expected from the original metric ansatz, carries the name Birkhoff-type theorem. Within the fourth of these classes we present some new results with further values of dimension and signature of the related spaces; including them are some counterexamples: families of space-times where no Birkhoff-type theorem is valid. These counterexamples further confirm the conjecture, that the Birkhoff-type theorems have their origin in the property, that the two eigenvalues of the Ricci tensor of two- dimensional pseudo-Riemannian spaces always coincide, a property not having an analogy in higher dimensions. Hence, Birkhoff-type theorems exist only for those physical situations which are reducible to two dimensions.

We deduce a new formula for the perihelion advance $Theta$ of a test particle in the Schwarzschild black hole by applying a newly developed non-linear transformation within the Schwarzschild space-time. By this transformation we are able to apply the well-known formula valid in the weak-field approximation near infinity also to trajectories in the strong-field regime near the horizon of the black hole. The resulting formula has the structure $Theta = c_1 - c_2 ln(c^2_3 - e^2) $ with positive constants $c_{1,2,3}$ depending on the angular momentum of the test particle. It is especially useful for orbits with large eccentricities $e < c_3 < 1$ showing that $Theta o infty$ as $e o c_3$.

For the Lagrangian L = G ln G where G is the Gauss-Bonnet curvature scalar we deduce the field equation and solve it in closed form for 3-flat Friedman models using a statefinder parametrization. Further we show, that among all lagrangians F(G) this L is the only one not having the form G^r with a real constant r but possessing a scale-invariant field equation. This turns out to be one of its analogies to f(R)-theories in 2-dimensional space-time. In the appendix, we systematically list several formulas for the decomposition of the Riemann tensor in arbitrary dimensions n, which are applied in the main deduction for n=4.