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Synchronization – the adjustment of rhythms among coupled self-oscillatory systems – is a fascinating dynamical phenomenon found in many biological, social, and technical systems.
The present thesis deals with synchronization in finite ensembles of weakly coupled self-sustained oscillators with distributed frequencies.
The standard model for the description of this collective phenomenon is the Kuramoto model – partly due to its analytical tractability in the thermodynamic limit of infinitely many oscillators. Similar to a phase transition in the thermodynamic limit, an order parameter indicates the transition from incoherence to a partially synchronized state. In the latter, a part of the oscillators rotates at a common frequency. In the finite case, fluctuations occur, originating from the quenched noise of the finite natural frequency sample.
We study intermediate ensembles of a few hundred oscillators in which fluctuations are comparably strong but which also allow for a comparison to frequency distributions in the infinite limit.
First, we define an alternative order parameter for the indication of a collective mode in the finite case. Then we test the dependence of the degree of synchronization and the mean rotation frequency of the collective mode on different characteristics for different coupling strengths.
We find, first numerically, that the degree of synchronization depends strongly on the form (quantified by kurtosis) of the natural frequency sample and the rotation frequency of the collective mode depends on the asymmetry (quantified by skewness) of the sample. Both findings are verified in the infinite limit.
With these findings, we better understand and generalize observations of other authors. A bit aside of the general line of thoughts, we find an analytical expression for the volume contraction in phase space.
The second part of this thesis concentrates on an ordering effect of the finite-size fluctuations. In the infinite limit, the oscillators are separated into coherent and incoherent thus ordered and disordered oscillators. In finite ensembles, finite-size fluctuations can generate additional order among the asynchronous oscillators. The basic principle – noise-induced synchronization – is known from several recent papers. Among coupled oscillators, phases are pushed together by the order parameter fluctuations, as we on the one hand show directly and on the other hand quantify with a synchronization measure from directed statistics between pairs of passive oscillators.
We determine the dependence of this synchronization measure from the ratio of pairwise natural frequency difference and variance of the order parameter fluctuations. We find a good agreement with a simple analytical model, in which we replace the deterministic fluctuations of the order parameter by white noise.

Synchronization of large ensembles of oscillators is an omnipresent phenomenon observed in different fields of science like physics, engineering, life sciences, etc. The most simple setup is that of globally coupled phase oscillators, where all the oscillators contribute to a global field which acts on all oscillators. This formulation of the problem was pioneered by Winfree and Kuramoto. Such a setup gives a possibility for the analysis of these systems in terms of global variables. In this work we describe nontrivial collective dynamics in oscillator populations coupled via mean fields in terms of global variables. We consider problems which cannot be directly reduced to standard Kuramoto and Winfree models.
In the first part of the thesis we adopt a method introduced by Watanabe and Strogatz. The main idea is that the system of identical oscillators of particular type can be described by a low-dimensional system of global equations. This approach enables us to perform a complete analytical analysis for a special but vast set of initial conditions. Furthermore, we show how the approach can be expanded for some nonidentical systems. We apply the Watanabe-Strogatz approach to arrays of Josephson junctions and systems of identical phase oscillators with leader-type coupling.
In the next parts of the thesis we consider the self-consistent mean-field theory method that can be applied to general nonidentical globally coupled systems of oscillators both with or without noise. For considered systems a regime, where the global field rotates uniformly, is the most important one. With the help of this approach such solutions of the self-consistency equation for an arbitrary distribution of frequencies and coupling parameters can be found analytically in the parametric form, both for noise-free and noisy cases.
We apply this method to deterministic Kuramoto-type model with generic coupling and an ensemble of spatially distributed oscillators with leader-type coupling. Furthermore, with the proposed self-consistent approach we fully characterize rotating wave solutions of noisy Kuramoto-type model with generic coupling and an ensemble of noisy oscillators with bi-harmonic coupling.
Whenever possible, a complete analysis of global dynamics is performed and compared with direct numerical simulations of large populations.

Synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon in nature. It can be considered as a general property of self-sustained oscillators to adjust their rhythm in the presence of an interaction.
In this work we investigate complex regimes of synchronization phenomena by means of theoretical analysis, numerical modeling, as well as practical analysis of experimental data.
As a subject of our investigation we consider chimera state, where due to spontaneous symmetry-breaking of an initially homogeneous oscillators lattice split the system into two parts with different dynamics. Chimera state as a new synchronization phenomenon was first found in non-locally coupled oscillators system, and has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade. However, the recent studies indicate that this state is also possible in globally coupled systems. In the first part of this work, we show under which conditions the chimera-like state appears in a system of globally coupled identical oscillators with intrinsic delayed feedback. The results of the research explain how initially monostable oscillators became effectivly bistable in the presence of the coupling and create a mean field that sustain the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized states. Also we discuss other examples, where chimera-like state appears due to frequency dependence of the phase shift in the bistable system.
In the second part, we make further investigation of this topic by modeling influence of an external periodic force to an oscillator with intrinsic delayed feedback. We made stability analysis of the synchronized state and constructed Arnold tongues. The results explain formation of the chimera-like state and hysteric behavior of the synchronization area. Also, we consider two sets of parameters of the oscillator with symmetric and asymmetric Arnold tongues, that correspond to mono- and bi-stable regimes of the oscillator.
In the third part, we demonstrate the results of the work, which was done in collaboration with our colleagues from Psychology Department of University of Potsdam. The project aimed to study the effect of the cardiac rhythm on human perception of time using synchronization analysis. From our part, we made a statistical analysis of the data obtained from the conducted experiment on free time interval reproduction task. We examined how ones heartbeat influences the time perception and searched for possible phase synchronization between heartbeat cycles and time reproduction responses. The findings support the prediction that cardiac cycles can serve as input signals, and is used for reproduction of time intervals in the range of several seconds.

In the present work synchronization phenomena in complex dynamical systems exhibiting multiple time scales have been analyzed. Multiple time scales can be active in different manners. Three different systems have been analyzed with different methods from data analysis. The first system studied is a large heterogenous network of bursting neurons, that is a system with two predominant time scales, the fast firing of action potentials (spikes) and the burst of repetitive spikes followed by a quiescent phase. This system has been integrated numerically and analyzed with methods based on recurrence in phase space. An interesting result are the different transitions to synchrony found in the two distinct time scales. Moreover, an anomalous synchronization effect can be observed in the fast time scale, i.e. there is range of the coupling strength where desynchronization occurs. The second system analyzed, numerically as well as experimentally, is a pair of coupled CO₂ lasers in a chaotic bursting regime. This system is interesting due to its similarity with epidemic models. We explain the bursts by different time scales generated from unstable periodic orbits embedded in the chaotic attractor and perform a synchronization analysis of these different orbits utilizing the continuous wavelet transform. We find a diverse route to synchrony of these different observed time scales. The last system studied is a small network motif of limit cycle oscillators. Precisely, we have studied a hub motif, which serves as elementary building block for scale-free networks, a type of network found in many real world applications. These hubs are of special importance for communication and information transfer in complex networks. Here, a detailed study on the mechanism of synchronization in oscillatory networks with a broad frequency distribution has been carried out. In particular, we find a remote synchronization of nodes in the network which are not directly coupled. We also explain the responsible mechanism and its limitations and constraints. Further we derive an analytic expression for it and show that information transmission in pure phase oscillators, such as the Kuramoto type, is limited. In addition to the numerical and analytic analysis an experiment consisting of electrical circuits has been designed. The obtained results confirm the former findings.

This work is concerned with the spatio-temporal structures that emerge when non-identical, diffusively coupled oscillators synchronize. It contains analytical results and their confirmation through extensive computer simulations. We use the Kuramoto model which reduces general oscillatory systems to phase dynamics. The symmetry of the coupling plays an important role for the formation of patterns. We have studied the ordering influence of an asymmetry (non-isochronicity) in the phase coupling function on the phase profile in synchronization and the intricate interplay between this asymmetry and the frequency heterogeneity in the system. The thesis is divided into three main parts. Chapter 2 and 3 introduce the basic model of Kuramoto and conditions for stable synchronization. In Chapter 4 we characterize the phase profiles in synchronization for various special cases and in an exponential approximation of the phase coupling function, which allows for an analytical treatment. Finally, in the third part (Chapter 5) we study the influence of non-isochronicity on the synchronization frequency in continuous, reaction diffusion systems and discrete networks of oscillators.

In the present dissertation paper we study problems related to synchronization phenomena in the presence of noise which unavoidably appears in real systems. One part of the work is aimed at investigation of utilizing delayed feedback to control properties of diverse chaotic dynamic and stochastic systems, with emphasis on the ones determining predisposition to synchronization. Other part deals with a constructive role of noise, i.e. its ability to synchronize identical self-sustained oscillators. First, we demonstrate that the coherence of a noisy or chaotic self-sustained oscillator can be efficiently controlled by the delayed feedback. We develop the analytical theory of this effect, considering noisy systems in the Gaussian approximation. Possible applications of the effect for the synchronization control are also discussed. Second, we consider synchrony of limit cycle systems (in other words, self-sustained oscillators) driven by identical noise. For weak noise and smooth systems we proof the purely synchronizing effect of noise. For slightly different oscillators and/or slightly nonidentical driving, synchrony becomes imperfect, and this subject is also studied. Then, with numerics we show moderate noise to be able to lead to desynchronization of some systems under certain circumstances. For neurons the last effect means “antireliability” (the “reliability” property of neurons is treated to be important from the viewpoint of information transmission functions), and we extend our investigation to neural oscillators which are not always limit cycle ones. Third, we develop a weakly nonlinear theory of the Kuramoto transition (a transition to collective synchrony) in an ensemble of globally coupled oscillators in presence of additional time-delayed coupling terms. We show that a linear delayed feedback not only controls the transition point, but effectively changes the nonlinear terms near the transition. A purely nonlinear delayed coupling does not affect the transition point, but can reduce or enhance the amplitude of collective oscillations.

In nature one commonly finds interacting complex oscillators which by the coupling scheme form small and large networks, e.g. neural networks. Surprisingly, the oscillators can synchronize, still preserving the complex behavior. Synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon in coupled nonlinear oscillators. Synchronization can be enhanced at different levels, that is, the constraints on which the synchronization appears. Those can be in the trajectory amplitude, requiring the amplitudes of both oscillators to be equal, giving place to complete synchronization. Conversely, the constraint could also be in a function of the trajectory, e.g. the phase, giving place to phase synchronization (PS). In this case, one requires the phase difference between both oscillators to be finite for all times, while the trajectory amplitude may be uncorrelated. The study of PS has shown its relevance to important technological problems, e.g. communication, collective behavior in neural networks, pattern formation, Parkinson disease, epilepsy, as well as behavioral activities. It has been reported that it mediates processes of information transmission and collective behavior in neural and active networks and communication processes in the Human brain. In this work, we have pursed a general way to analyze the onset of PS in small and large networks. Firstly, we have analyzed many phase coordinates for compact attractors. We have shown that for a broad class of attractors the PS phenomenon is invariant under the phase definition. Our method enables to state about the existence of phase synchronization in coupled chaotic oscillators without having to measure the phase. This is done by observing the oscillators at special times, and analyzing whether this set of points is localized. We have show that this approach is fruitful to analyze the onset of phase synchronization in chaotic attractors whose phases are not well defined, as well as, in networks of non-identical spiking/bursting neurons connected by chemical synapses. Moreover, we have also related the synchronization and the information transmission through the conditional observations. In particular, we have found that inside a network clusters may appear. These can be used to transmit more than one information, which provides a multi-processing of information. Furthermore, These clusters provide a multichannel communication, that is, one can integrate a large number of neurons into a single communication system, and information can arrive simultaneously at different places of the network.

<img src="http://vg00.met.vgwort.de/na/806c85cec18906a64e06" width="1" height="1" alt=""> Subject of this work is the possibility to synchronize nonlinear systems via correlated noise and automatic control. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part is motivated by field studies on feral sheep populations on two islands of the St. Kilda archipelago, which revealed strong correlations due to environmental noise. For a linear system the population correlation equals the noise correlation (Moran effect). But there exists no systematic examination of the properties of nonlinear maps under the influence of correlated noise. Therefore, in the first part of this thesis the noise-induced correlation of logistic maps is systematically examined. For small noise intensities it can be shown analytically that the correlation of quadratic maps in the fixed-point regime is always smaller than or equal to the noise correlation. In the period-2 regime a Markov model explains qualitatively the main dynamical characteristics. Furthermore, two different mechanisms are introduced which lead to a higher correlation of the systems than the environmental correlation. The new effect of "correlation resonance" is described, i. e. the correlation yields a maximum depending on the noise intensity. In the second part of the thesis an automatic control method is presented which synchronizes different systems in a robust way. This method is inspired by phase-locked loops and is based on a feedback loop with a differential control scheme, which allows to change the phases of the controlled systems. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated for controlled phase synchronization of regular oscillators and foodweb models.

The topic of synchronization forms a link between nonlinear dynamics and neuroscience. On the one hand, neurobiological research has shown that the synchronization of neuronal activity is an essential aspect of the working principle of the brain. On the other hand, recent advances in the physical theory have led to the discovery of the phenomenon of phase synchronization. A method of data analysis that is motivated by this finding - phase synchronization analysis - has already been successfully applied to empirical data. The present doctoral thesis ties up to these converging lines of research. Its subject are methodical contributions to the further development of phase synchronization analysis, as well as its application to event-related potentials, a form of EEG data that is especially important in the cognitive sciences. The methodical contributions of this work consist firstly in a number of specialized statistical tests for a difference in the synchronization strength in two different states of a system of two oscillators. Secondly, in regard of the many-channel character of EEG data an approach to multivariate phase synchronization analysis is presented. For the empirical investigation of neuronal synchronization a classic experiment on language processing was replicated, comparing the effect of a semantic violation in a sentence context with that of the manipulation of physical stimulus properties (font color). Here phase synchronization analysis detects a decrease of global synchronization for the semantic violation as well as an increase for the physical manipulation. In the latter case, by means of the multivariate analysis the global synchronization effect can be traced back to an interaction of symmetrically located brain areas.<BR> The findings presented show that the method of phase synchronization analysis motivated by physics is able to provide a relevant contribution to the investigation of event-related potentials in the cognitive sciences.

This work deals with the connection between two basic phenomena in Nonlinear Dynamics: synchronization of chaotic systems and recurrences in phase space. Synchronization takes place when two or more systems adapt (synchronize) some characteristic of their respective motions, due to an interaction between the systems or to a common external forcing. The appearence of synchronized dynamics in chaotic systems is rather universal but not trivial. In some sense, the possibility that two chaotic systems synchronize is counterintuitive: chaotic systems are characterized by the sensitivity ti different initial conditions. Hence, two identical chaotic systems starting at two slightly different initial conditions evolve in a different manner, and after a certain time, they become uncorrelated. Therefore, at a first glance, it does not seem to be plausible that two chaotic systems are able to synchronize. But as we will see later, synchronization of chaotic systems has been demonstrated. On one hand it is important to investigate the conditions under which synchronization of chaotic systems occurs, and on the other hand, to develop tests for the detection of synchronization. In this work, I have concentrated on the second task for the cases of phase synchronization (PS) and generalized synchronization (GS). Several measures have been proposed so far for the detection of PS and GS. However, difficulties arise with the detection of synchronization in systems subjected to rather large amounts of noise and/or instationarities, which are common when analyzing experimental data. The new measures proposed in the course of this thesis are rather robust with respect to these effects. They hence allow to be applied to data, which have evaded synchronization analysis so far. The proposed tests for synchronization in this work are based on the fundamental property of recurrences in phase space.

This thesis analyses synchronization phenomena occurring in large ensembles of interacting oscillatory units. In particular, the effects of nonisochronicity (frequency dependence on the oscillator's amplitude) on the macroscopic transition to synchronization are studied in detail. The new phenomena found (Anomalous Synchronization) are investigated in populations of oscillators as well as between oscillator's ensembles.

Subject of this work is the investigation of universal scaling laws which are observed in coupled chaotic systems. Progress is made by replacing the chaotic fluctuations in the perturbation dynamics by stochastic processes. First, a continuous-time stochastic model for weakly coupled chaotic systems is introduced to study the scaling of the Lyapunov exponents with the coupling strength (coupling sensitivity of chaos). By means of the the Fokker-Planck equation scaling relations are derived, which are confirmed by results of numerical simulations. Next, the new effect of avoided crossing of Lyapunov exponents of weakly coupled disordered chaotic systems is described, which is qualitatively similar to the energy level repulsion in quantum systems. Using the scaling relations obtained for the coupling sensitivity of chaos, an asymptotic expression for the distribution function of small spacings between Lyapunov exponents is derived and compared with results of numerical simulations. Finally, the synchronization transition in strongly coupled spatially extended chaotic systems is shown to resemble a continuous phase transition, with the coupling strength and the synchronization error as control and order parameter, respectively. Using results of numerical simulations and theoretical considerations in terms of a multiplicative noise partial differential equation, the universality classes of the observed two types of transition are determined (Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation with saturating term, directed percolation).