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HPI Future SOC Lab
(2016)

The “HPI Future SOC Lab” is a cooperation of the Hasso Plattner Institute (HPI) and industrial partners. Its mission is to enable and promote exchange and interaction between the research community and the industrial partners.
The HPI Future SOC Lab provides researchers with free of charge access to a complete infrastructure of state of the art hard and software. This infrastructure includes components, which might be too expensive for an ordinary research environment, such as servers with up to 64 cores and 2 TB main memory. The offerings address researchers particularly from but not limited to the areas of computer science and business information systems. Main areas of research include cloud computing, parallelization, and In-Memory technologies.
This technical report presents results of research projects executed in 2016. Selected projects have presented their results on April 5th and November 3th 2016 at the Future SOC Lab Day events.

Complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and society. They appear in vastly different domains, for instance as social networks, biological interactions or communication networks. Yet in spite of their different origins, these networks share many structural characteristics. For instance, their degree distribution typically follows a power law. This means that the fraction of vertices of degree k is proportional to k^(−β) for some constant β; making these networks highly inhomogeneous. Furthermore, they also typically have high clustering, meaning that links between two nodes are more likely to appear if they have a neighbor in common.
To mathematically study the behavior of such networks, they are often modeled as random graphs. Many of the popular models like inhomogeneous random graphs or Preferential Attachment excel at producing a power law degree distribution. Clustering, on the other hand, is in these models either not present or artificially enforced.
Hyperbolic random graphs bridge this gap by assuming an underlying geometry to the graph: Each vertex is assigned coordinates in the hyperbolic plane, and two vertices are connected if they are nearby. Clustering then emerges as a natural consequence: Two nodes joined by an edge are close by and therefore have many neighbors in common. On the other hand, the exponential expansion of space in the hyperbolic plane naturally produces a power law degree sequence. Due to the hyperbolic geometry, however, rigorous mathematical treatment of this model can quickly become mathematically challenging.
In this thesis, we improve upon the understanding of hyperbolic random graphs by studying its structural and algorithmical properties. Our main contribution is threefold. First, we analyze the emergence of cliques in this model. We find that whenever the power law exponent β is 2 < β < 3, there exists a clique of polynomial size in n. On the other hand, for β >= 3, the size of the largest clique is logarithmic; which severely contrasts previous models with a constant size clique in this case. We also provide efficient algorithms for finding cliques if the hyperbolic node coordinates are known. Second, we analyze the diameter, i. e., the longest shortest path in the graph. We find
that it is of order O(polylog(n)) if 2 < β < 3 and O(logn) if β > 3. To complement
these findings, we also show that the diameter is of order at least Ω(logn). Third, we provide an algorithm for embedding a real-world graph into the hyperbolic plane using only its graph structure. To ensure good quality of the embedding, we perform extensive computational experiments on generated hyperbolic random graphs. Further, as a proof of concept, we embed the Amazon product recommendation network and observe that products from the same category are mapped close together.