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#### Institute

- Institut für Chemie (267) (remove)

Information about the strength of donor–acceptor interactions in push–pull alkenes is valuable, as this so-called “push–pull effect” influences their chemical reactivity and dynamic behaviour. In this paper, we discuss the applicability of NMR spectral data and barriers to rotation around the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond to quantify the push–pull effect in biologically important 2-alkylidene-4-oxothiazolidines. While olefinic proton chemical shifts and differences in 13C NMR chemical shifts of the two carbons constituting the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond fail to give the correct trend in the electron withdrawing ability of the substituents attached to the exocyclic carbon of the double bond, barriers to rotation prove to be a reliable quantity in providing information about the extent of donor–acceptor interactions in the push–pull systems studied. In particular all relevant kinetic data, that is the Arrhenius parameters (apparent activation energy Ea and frequency factor A) and activation parameters (ΔS‡, ΔH‡ and ΔG‡), were determined from the data of the experimentally studied configurational isomerization of (E)-9a. These results were compared to previously published related data for other two compounds, (Z)-1b and (2E,5Z)-7, showing that experimentally determined ΔG‡ values are a good indicator of the strength of push–pull character. Theoretical calculations of the rotational barriers of eight selected derivatives excellently correlate with the calculated C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond lengths and corroborate the applicability of ΔG‡ for estimation of the strength of the push–pull effect in these and related systems.

Chiral dopants were obtained by acylation of enantiomerically pure ephedrine and pseudoephedrine with promesogenic carbonyl reagents. The products have been investigated with respect to their chiral transfer ability on nematic host matrices characterized by extreme differences of the dielectric anisotropy. It has been found that the medium dependence of the helicity induction nearly disappears at reduced temperatures. Based on variable temperature H-1 NMR studies on monoacylated homologues, the estimated coalescence temperatures and free activation enthalpies for the hindered rotation around C-N bonds could be correlated with the helical twisting power. Measurements by dielectric spectroscopy reveal the correlation between the molar mass of substituents linked to the chiral building block and the dynamic glass transition of corresponding chiral dopants. Furthermore, the effect of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds has been studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

Are para-nitro-pyridine N-oxides quinonoid or benzenoid? An answer given by spatial NICS (TSNMRS)
(2015)

The spatial magnetic properties (Through-Space NMR Shieldings-TSNMRS) of a number of substituted para-nitro-pyridine N-oxides have been computed, visualized as Iso-Chemical-Shielding-Surfaces (ICSS) of various size and direction, and were examined subject to the present quinonoid or benzenoid pi-relectron distribution of the six-membered ring. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The complete H-1 and C-13 NMR chemical shifts assignment for various 2-substituted and 2,2-disubstituted adamantane derivatives 1-38 in CDCl3 solution was realized on the basis of NMR experiments combined with chemical structure information and DFT-GIAO (B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)-GIAO) calculations of chemical shifts in solution. Substituent-induced C-13 NMR chemical shifts (SCS) are discussed. C-H-ax center dot center dot center dot Y-ax contacts are a textbook prototype of steric hindrance in organic chemistry. The nature of these contacts will be further investigated in this work on basis of new adamantane derivatives, which are substituted at C-2 to provide models for 1,4-C-H-ax center dot center dot center dot Y-ax and 1,5-C-H-ax center dot center dot center dot Y-ax contacts. The B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations predicted the presence of NBO hyperconjugative attractive interactions between C-H-ax and Y-ax groups along C-H-ax center dot center dot center dot Y-ax contacts. The H-1 NMR signal separation, Delta delta(gamma-CH2), reflects the strength of the H-bonded C-H-ax center dot center dot center dot Y-ax contact. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The spatial magnetic properties (through Space NAIR shieldings, TSNMRSs) of cyclopropane; of the heteroanalogous oxirane, thiirane, and aziridine; and of various substituted dis-, and tris-cyclic analogues have been computed by the GIAO perturbation method employing the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) concept and visualized as iso-chemical-shielding surfaces (ICSSs) of various size and direction. The TSNMRS values, thus obtained, can be employed to visualize the anisotropy (ring current) effect of I the cyclopropane ring moiety. This approach has been employed to qualify and quantify substituent influences and contributions of appropriate ring heteroatoms O, NH, and S on the anisotropy (ring current) effect of three-mernbered ring moieties, and to assign the stereochemistry of mono-, bis-, and tris cyclic structures containing cyclopropane as a structural element. Characteristic examples are included.

The molecular structure and conformational behavior of 3-methyl-3-phenyl-3-silatetrahydropyran 1 was studied by gas-phase electron diffraction (GED-MS), low temperature C-13 NMR spectroscopy (LT NMR) and theoretical calculations. The 1-Ph-eq and 1-Ph-ax conformers were located on the potential energy surface. Rotation about the Si-C-ph bond revealed the phenyl ring orthogonal to the averaged plane of the silatetrahydropyran ring for 1-Ph-eq and a twisted orientation for 1-Ph-ax. Theoretical calculations and GED analysis indicate the predominance of 1-Ph-ax in the gas phase with the ratio of conformers (GED) 1-Ph-eq:1-Ph-ax=38:62 (Delta G degrees(307)=-0.29 kcal/mol). In solution, LT NMR spectroscopy gives almost the opposite ratio Ph-eq:1-Ph-ax=68:32 (Delta G degrees(103)=0.16 kcal/mol). Simulation of solvent effects using the PCM continuum model or by calculation of the solvent-solute complexes allowed us to rationalize the experimentally observed opposite conformational predominance of the conformers of compound 1 in the gas phase and in solution. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Characterization and quantification of quasi-aromaticity by spatial magnetic properties (TSNMRS)
(2015)

The spatial magnetic properties (Through Space NMR Shieldings-TSNMRS) of various types of structures with suggested quasi-aromaticity (a summaring topic: in detail push pull, captodative, chelate, supramolecular aromaticity, etc.) have been computed, are visualized as Isochemical Shielding Surfaces (ICSS) of various size/direction and examined subject to identify and quantify present (partial) aromaticity. While the TSNMRS approach proves really helpful [even in cases of (4n+2) pi-electron cyclic moieties formed via non-covalent polar interactions] quasi-aromaticity suggested for enol forms of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds via resonance-assisted intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding cannot be confirmed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Molecular structure and conformational behavior of 3-isopropoxy-3-methyl-3-oxasilinane is studied by low temperature C-13 NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations (DFT, MP2). Two conformers, 1-ROax and 1-ROeq, were found experimentally and located on the potential energy surface. LT C-13 NMR spectroscopy gives almost equal population of the two conformers at 98 K with Delta G(98K)degrees=0.02 kcal/mol in favor of 1-ROax and Delta G(98K)(#)=4.5 kcal/mol. The corresponding DFT calculated values (Delta G(98K)degrees=0.03 kcal/mol, Delta G(98K)(#)=5.1 kcal/mol) are in excellent agreement with the experiment. Detailed DFT and MP2 calculations of the solvent effect on the conformational equilibrium were performed and highlighted the leveling out of the two conformers when transferred from gas to solution. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

3-Methyl-3-silatetrahydropyran 1 was synthesized and its molecular structure and conformational behavior was studied by gas-phase electron diffraction (GED), FTIR, low temperature H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy, and by theoretical calculations (DFT, MP2). Two conformers; 1-ax and 1-eq; were located on the potential energy Surface. In the gas phase; a slight predominance of the axial conformer was determined, with the ratio 1-ax:1-eq = 54(9):46(9) (from GED) or 53:47 or 61;39 (from IR). In solution, LT NMR spectroscopy at 103 K gives the ratio 1-ax:1-eq = 35:65 (-Delta G(103)degrees = 0.13 kcal/mol). Simulation of solvent effects using the PCM continuum model or by calculation of the corresponding solvent-solute complexes allowed us to rationalize the experimentally observed opposite conformational predominance of the conformers of 3-methyl-3-silatettahydropyran in the gas phase and in solution. Comparative analysis of the effect of heteroatom in 1-hetero-3-methyl-3-silacyclohexanes on the structure, stereoelectronic interactions, and relative energies of the conformers is done.

As a part of searching for fully aromatic chelate compounds, copper complexes of malondialdehyde as well as its sulfur and selenium derivatives were investigated using the DFT quantum chemical methods. Chelate complexes of both Cu(I) and Cu(II) ions wereconsidered. Aromaticity of the metal complexes studied were analyzed using NICS(0), NICS(1), PDI, I-ring, MCI, ICMCI and I-B aromaticity indices, and by TSNMRS visualizations of the spatial magnetic properties. It seems that partial aromaticityof studied chelates increases when oxygen atoms in malondialdehyde are replaced by sulfur and selenium.

The anisotropy effect of functional groups (respectively the ring-current effect of aryl moieties) in H-1 NMR spectra has been computed as spatial NICS (through-space NMR chemical shieldings) and visualized by iso-chemical-shielding surfaces of various size and low(high) field direction. Hereby, the anisotropy/ring-current effect, which proves to be the molecular response property of spatial NICS, can be quantified and can be readily employed for assignment purposes in proton NMR spectroscopy-characteristic examples of stereochemistry and position assignments (the latter in supramolecular structures) will be given. In addition, anisotropy/ring-current effects in H-1 NMR spectra can be quantitatively separated from the second dominant structural effect in proton NMR spectra, the steric compression effect, pointing into the reverse direction, and the ring-current effect, by far the strongest anisotropy effect, can be impressively employed to visualize and quantify (anti) aromaticity and to clear up standing physical-organic phenomena as are pseudo-, spherical, captodative, homo-and chelatoaromaticity, to characterize the pi-electronic structure of, for example, fulvenes, fulvalenes, annulenes or fullerenes and to differentiate aromatic and quinonoid structures.

Conformational behavior of the first cyclic organosilicon vinylsulfide, 4,4-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-thiasiline as well as its monoheterocyclic analogs, 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran, 3,4-dihydro-2H-thiopyran, and 1,1-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrosiline is studied in comparison with the carbocyclic analog, cyclohexene, using the methods of low-temperature NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations at the DFT and MP2 levels of theory. The barrier to the ring inversion with respect to that in cycloxene is increased in 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran and 1,1-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrosiline, but, in contrast to the suggestions made in the literature, is decreased in 3,4-dihydro-2H-thiopyran. In 4,4-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-thiasiline the barrier is intermediate between those in the corresponding monoheterocycles, 1,1-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrosiline and 3,4-dihydro-2H-thiopyran. The observed variations are rationalized from the viewpoint of the interaction of the pi-electrons of the C=C double bond with the orbitals of heteroatoms in the ring. The structure of the transition state for the ring inversion is discussed.

Restricted rotation about the N-S partial double bonds in a bis-N-triflyl substituted 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivative 1 has been frozen at low temperature (Delta G* = 11.6 kcal mol(-1)), and the existence of all four rotamers about the two N-S bonds, 3-in, 8-in, 3-in, 8-out, 3-out, 8-in, and 3-out, 8-out, respectively, proved experimentally by NMR spectroscopy and theoretically by DFT and MP2 calculations. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Structures, C-13 chemical shifts, and the occupation quotients of anti-bonding pi* and bonding pi orbitals of the C C triple bond along a series of push-pull alkynes (p)X-C6H4 C(O)-C C-NH-C6H4-Y(P) (X,Y= H, Me, OMe, NMe2, NO2, COMe, COOMe, F, Cl, Br) were computed at the DFT level (B3LYP/6-311G**) of theory. Both the stereochemistry (cis/trans-isomers) by steric twist and the push-pull character by both C-13 chemical shift differences (Delta delta(C C)) and the occupation quotient (pi(C C)/pi(C C)) were studied; the latter two parameters can be readily employed to precisely quantify the push-pull effect in alkynes. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The spatial magnetic properties (Through Space NMR Shieldings-TSNMRS) of a variety of porphyrins, hemiporphyrazines and tetraoxo[8]circulenes have been computed, visualized as Iso-chemical Shielding Surfaces (ICSS) of various size and direction, and were examined subject to the interplay of present (para)-diatropic ring currents [(anti)aromaticity] and influences on the latter property originating from the macrocyclic ring conformation, further annelation and partial to complete hydrogenation of aromatic ring moieties. Caution seems to be indicated when concluding from a single NICS parameter to present (para)diatropic ring currents [(anti)aromaticity]. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The spatial magnetic properties (through space NMR shieldings-TSNMRS) of metal complexes (with ligands such as acetylacetone, 3-hydroxy-pyran(4) one) and "metallobenzenes" have been calculated by the GIAO perturbation method and visualized as Iso-Chemical-Shielding Surfaces (ICSS) of various sizes and directions. The TSNMRS values, thus obtained, can be successfully employed to quantify and visualize partial aromaticity of the metallocyclic ring by comparison with the spatial magnetic properties of the corresponding non-complexed ligands in comparable structural and electronic situations, and benzene, respectively. Because anisotropy/ring current effects in H-1 NMR spectra proved to be the molecular response property of TSNMRS, the results obtained concerning partial "chelatoaromaticity" are experimentally ensured.

The proportion of the axial conformer increases in the ax reversible arrow eq equilibrium of cyclohexyl acetates (RCOOC(6)H(11), R reversible arrow Me, Et, iPr, tBu, CH(2)Cl, CHCl(2), CO(3). CH(2)Br, CHBr(2), CBr(3)) with the increasing size of the acyloxy substitution. The nature of this unexpected steric substituent effect, which is opposite to general stereochemical concepts, was studied by means of ab kiln MO method, accompanied by NBO and isodesmic calculations. NBO parameters seem to be good descriptors for quantitative prediction of the experimental Delta G degrees value of the title conformational equilibrium. The origin and propagation of the substituent effect of the polar substitutions (CH(2)Cl, CHCl(2), CCl(3), CH(2)Br, CHBr(2), CBr(3)) differ, however, from those of the pure alkyl (Me, Et, iPr, tBu) substitutions. The Delta G degrees value of the polar derivatives depends on the qC8 charges, on the occupation of the sigma(center dot)(C1-07) orbital and on the hyperconjugative pi(center dot)(c=O) -> sigma(center dot)(C10-X) and sigma(center dot)(C10-X) -> pi(center dot)(c=O) interactions. The substituent sensitivity of these NBC parameters for the two conformers differ to the effect that the ax reversible arrow eq equilibrium is shifted to the left side with increasing electron withdrawing character of the acyloxy group. The Delta G degrees values of the alkyl derivatives are interpreted in terms of the calculated dipole moments. The destabilization in the non-polar medium (the experimental Delta G degrees values used were measured in CD(2)Cl(2)) due to the enhanced dipolar character is more prominent in the case of the equatorial alkyl conformers. As the consequence, the ax reversible arrow eq equilibrium is shifted to the left despite the increasing size of the R group when going from Me to tBu substitution.

The conformational equilibria of 3-methyl-3-silathiane 5, 3-fluoro-3-methyl-3-silathiane 6 and 1-fluoro-1-methyl-1- silacyclohexane 7 have been studied using low temperature C-13 NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. The conformer ratio at 103 K was measured to be about 5(ax):5(eq) - 15:85, 6(ax):6(eq)-50:50 and 7(ax):7(eq)-25:75. The equatorial preference of the methyl group in 5 (0.35 kcal mol(-1)) is much less than in 3-methylthiane 9 (1.40 kcal mol(-1)) but somewhat greater than in 1-methyl-1-silacyclohexane 1 (0.23 kcal mol(-1)). Compounds 5-7 have low barriers to ring inversion: 5.65 (ax -> eq) and 6.0 kcal mol(-1) (eq -> ax) (5), 4.6 kcal mol(-1) (6), 5.1 kcal mol(-1) (Me-ax -> Me-eq), and 5.4 kcal mol(-1) (Me-eq -> Me-ax) (7). Steric effects cannot explain the observed conformational preferences, like equal population of the two conformers of 6, or different conformer ratio for 5 and 7. Actually, by employing the NBO analysis, in particular, considering the second order perturbation energies, vicinal stereoelectronic interactions between the Si-X and adjacent C-H, C-S, and C-C bonds proved responsible.

The syn and anti isomers of cis,cis-tricyclo[5.3.0.0(2.6)]dec-3-ene derivatives have been synthesized and their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra unequivocally analyzed. Both their structures and their (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts were calculated by DFT, the latter two calculations employing the GIAO perturbation method. Additionally, calculated NMR shielding values were partitioned into Lewis and non-Lewis contributions from the bonds and lone pairs involved in the molecules by accompanying NBO and NCS analyses. The differences between the syn and anti isomers were evaluated with respect to steric and spatial hyperconjugation interactions.

Amphiphilic linear ternary block copolymers (ABC) were synthesized in three consecutive steps by the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) method. Using oligo(ethylene oxide) monomethyl ether acrylate, benzyl acrylate, and 1H,1H-perfluorobutyl acrylate monomers, the triblock copolymers consist of a hydrophilic (A), a lipophilic (B), and a fluorophilic (C) block. The block sequence of the triphilic copolymers was varied systematically to provide all possible variations: ABC, ACB, and BAC. All blocks have glass transition temperatures below 0 degrees C. Self-assembly into spherical micellar aggregates was observed in aqueous solution, where hydrophobic cores undergo local phase separation into various ultrastructures as shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Selective solubilization of substantial quantities of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon low molar mass compounds by the lipophilic and fluorophilic block, respectively, is demonstrated.