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In this work we are concerned with the characterization of certain classes of stochastic processes via duality formulae. First, we introduce a new formulation of a characterization of processes with independent increments, which is based on an integration by parts formula satisfied by infinitely divisible random vectors. Then we focus on the study of the reciprocal classes of Markov processes. These classes contain all stochastic processes having the same bridges, and thus similar dynamics, as a reference Markov process. We start with a resume of some existing results concerning the reciprocal classes of Brownian diffusions as solutions of duality formulae. As a new contribution, we show that the duality formula satisfied by elements of the reciprocal class of a Brownian diffusion has a physical interpretation as a stochastic Newton equation of motion. In the context of pure jump processes we derive the following new results. We will analyze the reciprocal classes of Markov counting processes and characterize them as a group of stochastic processes satisfying a duality formula. This result is applied to time-reversal of counting processes. We are able to extend some of these results to pure jump processes with different jump-sizes, in particular we are able to compare the reciprocal classes of Markov pure jump processes through a functional equation between the jump-intensities.

Asymptotic solutions of the Dirichlet problem for the heat equation at a characteristic point
(2012)

The Dirichlet problem for the heat equation in a bounded domain is characteristic, for there are boundary points at which the boundary touches a characteristic hyperplane t = c, c being a constant. It was I.G. Petrovskii (1934) who first found necessary and sufficient conditions on the boundary which guarantee that the solution is continuous up to the characteristic point, provided that the Dirichlet data are continuous. This paper initiated standing interest in studying general boundary value problems for parabolic equations in bounded domains. We contribute to the study by constructing a formal solution of the Dirichlet problem for the heat equation in a neighbourhood of a characteristic boundary point and showing its asymptotic character.

We develop the method of Fischer-Riesz equations for general boundary value problems elliptic in the sense of Douglis-Nirenberg. To this end we reduce them to a boundary problem for a (possibly overdetermined) first order system whose classical symbol has a left inverse. For such a problem there is a uniquely determined boundary value problem which is adjoint to the given one with respect to the Green formula. On using a well elaborated theory of approximation by solutions of the adjoint problem, we find the Cauchy data of solutions of our problem.

We study the Dirichlet problem in a bounded plane domain for the heat equation with small parameter multiplying the derivative in t. The behaviour of solution at characteristic points of the boundary is of special interest. The behaviour is well understood if a characteristic line is tangent to the boundary with contact degree at least 2. We allow the boundary to not only have contact of degree less than 2 with a characteristic line but also a cuspidal singularity at a characteristic point. We construct an asymptotic solution of the problem near the characteristic point to describe how the boundary layer degenerates.

A linear differential operator L is called weakly hypoelliptic if any local solution u of Lu = 0 is smooth. We allow for systems, i.e. the coefficients may be matrices, not necessarily of square size. This is a huge class of important operators which covers all elliptic, overdetermined elliptic, subelliptic and parabolic equations. We extend several classical theorems from complex analysis to solutions of any weakly hypoelliptic equation: the Montel theorem providing convergent subsequences, the Vitali theorem ensuring convergence of a given sequence, and Riemann's first removable singularity theorem. In the case of constant coefficients we show that Liouville's theorem holds, any bounded solution must be constant and any L^p solution must vanish.

We introduce renormalized integrals which generalize conventional measure theoretic integrals. One approximates the integration domain by measure spaces and defines the integral as the limit of integrals over the approximating spaces. This concept is implicitly present in many mathematical contexts such as Cauchy's principal value, the determinant of operators on a Hilbert space and the Fourier transform of an L^p function. We use renormalized integrals to define a path integral on manifolds by approximation via geodesic polygons. The main part of the paper is dedicated to the proof of a path integral formula for the heat kernel of any self-adjoint generalized Laplace operator acting on sections of a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold.

We consider orthogonal connections with arbitrary torsion on compact Riemannian manifolds. For the induced Dirac operators, twisted Dirac operators and Dirac operators of Chamseddine-Connes type we compute the spectral action. In addition to the Einstein-Hilbert action and the bosonic part of the Standard Model Lagrangian we find the Holst term from Loop Quantum Gravity, a coupling of the Holst term to the scalar curvature and a prediction for the value of the Barbero-Immirzi parameter.

We study boundary value problems for linear elliptic differential operators of order one. The underlying manifold may be noncompact, but the boundary is assumed to be compact. We require a symmetry property of the principal symbol of the operator along the boundary. This is satisfied by Dirac type operators, for instance. We provide a selfcontained introduction to (nonlocal) elliptic boundary conditions, boundary regularity of solutions, and index theory. In particular, we simplify and generalize the traditional theory of elliptic boundary value problems for Dirac type operators. We also prove a related decomposition theorem, a general version of Gromov and Lawson's relative index theorem and a generalization of the cobordism theorem.

This is an introduction to Wiener measure and the Feynman-Kac formula on general Riemannian manifolds for Riemannian geometers with little or no background in stochastics. We explain the construction of Wiener measure based on the heat kernel in full detail and we prove the Feynman-Kac formula for Schrödinger operators with bounded potentials. We also consider normal Riemannian coverings and show that projecting and lifting of paths are inverse operations which respect the Wiener measure.

We consider compact Riemannian spin manifolds without boundary equipped with orthogonal connections. We investigate the induced Dirac operators and the associated commutative spectral triples. In case of dimension four and totally anti-symmetric torsion we compute the Chamseddine-Connes spectral action, deduce the equations of motions and discuss critical points.

This paper examines and develops matrix methods to approximate the eigenvalues of a fourth order Sturm-Liouville problem subjected to a kind of fixed boundary conditions, furthermore, it extends the matrix methods for a kind of general boundary conditions. The idea of the methods comes from finite difference and Numerov's method as well as boundary value methods for second order regular Sturm-Liouville problems. Moreover, the determination of the correction term formulas of the matrix methods are investigated in order to obtain better approximations of the problem with fixed boundary conditions since the exact eigenvalues for q = 0 are known in this case. Finally, some numerical examples are illustrated.

The Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to the fact the the reciprocal function 1/zeta (s) extends from the interval (1/2,1) to an analytic function in the quarter-strip 1/2 < Re s < 1 and Im s > 0. Function theory allows one to rewrite the condition of analytic continuability in an elegant form amenable to numerical experiments.

On completeness of root functions of Sturm-Liouville problems with discontinuous boundary operators
(2012)

We consider a Sturm-Liouville boundary value problem in a bounded domain D of R^n. By this is meant that the differential equation is given by a second order elliptic operator of divergent form in D and the boundary conditions are of Robin type on bD. The first order term of the boundary operator is the oblique derivative whose coefficients bear discontinuities of the first kind. Applying the method of weak perturbation of compact self-adjoint operators and the method of rays of minimal growth, we prove the completeness of root functions related to the boundary value problem in Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces of various types.

We consider the Dirichlet, Neumann and Zaremba problems for harmonic functions in a bounded plane domain with nonsmooth boundary. The boundary curve belongs to one of the following three classes: sectorial curves, logarithmic spirals and spirals of power type. To study the problem we apply a familiar method of Vekua-Muskhelishvili which consists in using a conformal mapping of the unit disk onto the domain to pull back the problem to a boundary problem for harmonic functions in the disk. This latter is reduced in turn to a Toeplitz operator equation on the unit circle with symbol bearing discontinuities of second kind. We develop a constructive invertibility theory for Toeplitz operators and thus derive solvability conditions as well as explicit formulas for solutions.

We study maximal subsemigroups of the monoid T(X) of all full transformations on the set X = N of natural numbers containing a given subsemigroup W of T(X), where each element of a given set U is a generator of T(X) modulo W. This note continues the study of maximal subsemigroups of the monoid of all full transformations on an infinite set.