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Two-dimensional bouyancy-driven convection in a horizontal fluid layer with stress-free boundary conditions at top and bottom and periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal direction is investigated by means of numerical simulation and bifurcation-analysis techniques. As the bouyancy forces increase, the primary stationary and symmetric convection rolls undergo successive Hopf bifurcations, bifurcations to traveling waves, and phase lockings. We pay attention to symmetry breaking and its connection with the generation of large-scale horizontal flows. Calculations of Lyapunov exponents indicate that at a Rayleigh number of 2.3×105 no temporal chaos is reached yet, but the system moves nonchaotically on a 4-torus in phase space.

The aim of these lectures is a reformulation and generalization of the fundamental investigations of Alexander Bach [2, 3] on the concept of probability in the work of Boltzmann [6] in the language of modern point process theory. The dominating point of view here is its subordination under the disintegration theory of Krickeberg [14]. This enables us to make Bach's consideration much more transparent. Moreover the point process formulation turns out to be the natural framework for the applications to quantum mechanical models.

Aus dem Inhalt: 1 Abraham Wald (1902-1950) 2 Einführung der Grundbegriffe. Einige technische bekannte Ergebnisse 2.1 Martingal und Doob-Ungleichung 2.2 Brownsche Bewegung und spezielle Martingale 2.3 Gleichgradige Integrierbarkeit von Prozessen 2.4 Gestopptes Martingal 2.5 Optionaler Stoppsatz von Doob 2.6 Lokales Martingal 2.7 Quadratische Variation 2.8 Die Dichte der ersten einseitigen Überschreitungszeit der Brown- schen Bewegung 2.9 Waldidentitäten für die Überschreitungszeiten der Brownschen Bewegung 3 Erste Waldidentität 3.1 Burkholder, Gundy und Davis Ungleichungen der gestoppten Brown- schen Bewegung 3.2 Erste Waldidentität für die Brownsche Bewegung 3.3 Verfeinerungen der ersten Waldidentität 3.4 Stärkere Verfeinerung der ersten Waldidentität für die Brown- schen Bewegung 3.5 Verfeinerung der ersten Waldidentität für spezielle Stoppzeiten der Brownschen Bewegung 3.6 Beispiele für lokale Martingale für die Verfeinerung der ersten Waldidentität 3.7 Überschreitungszeiten der Brownschen Bewegung für nichtlineare Schranken 4 Zweite Waldidentität 4.1 Zweite Waldidentität für die Brownsche Bewegung 4.2 Anwendungen der ersten und zweitenWaldidentität für die Brown- schen Bewegung 5 Dritte Waldidentität 5.1 Dritte Waldidentität für die Brownsche Bewegung 5.2 Verfeinerung der dritten Waldidentität 5.3 Eine wichtige Voraussetzung für die Verfeinerung der drittenWal- didentität 5.4 Verfeinerung der dritten Waldidentität für spezielle Stoppzeiten der Brownschen Bewegung 6 Waldidentitäten im Mehrdimensionalen 6.1 Erste Waldidentität im Mehrdimensionalen 6.2 Zweite Waldidentität im Mehrdimensionalen 6.3 Dritte Waldidentität im Mehrdimensionalen 7 Appendix

A numerical MHD model is developed to investigate acceleration and heating of both thermal and auroral plasma. This is done for magnetospheric flux tubes in which intensive field aligned currents flow. To give each of these tubes, the empirical Tsyganenko model of the magnetospheric field is used. The parameters of the background plasma outside the flux tube as well as the strength of the electric field of magnetospheric convection are given. Performing the numerical calculations, the distributions of the plasma densities, velocities, temperatures, parallel electric field and current, and of the coefficients of thermal conductivity are obtained in a self-consistent way. It is found that EIC turbulence develops effectively in the thermal plasma. The parallel electric field develops under the action of the anomalous resistivity. This electric field accelerates both the thermal and the auroral plasma. The thermal turbulent plasma is also subjected to an intensive heating. The increase of the plasma of the Earth's ionosphere. Besides, studying the growth and dispersion properties of oblique ion cyclotron waves excited in a drifting magnetized plasma, it is shown that under non-stationary conditions such waves may reveal the properties of bursts of polarized transverse electromagnetic waves at frequencies near the patron gyrofrequency.

In this paper, we discuss the global existence of solutions for Chemotaxis models with saturation growth. If the coe±cients of the equations are all positive smooth T-periodic functions, then the problem has a positive T-periodic solution, and meanwhile we discuss here the stability problems for the T-periodic solutions.

In this paper, the problem on formation and construction of a shock wave for three dimensional compressible Euler equations with the small perturbed spherical initial data is studied. If the given smooth initial data satisfies certain nondegenerate condition, then from the results in [20], we know that there exists a unique blowup point at the blowup time such that the first order derivates of smooth solution blow up meanwhile the solution itself is still continuous at the blowup point. From the blowup point, we construct a weak entropy solution which is not uniformly Lipschitz continuous on two sides of shock curve, moreover the strength of the constructed shock is zero at the blowup point and then gradually increases. Additionally, some detailed and precise estimates on the solution are obtained in the neighbourhood of the blowup point.

This note is devoted to the study on the global existence of a shock wave for the supersonic flow past a curved wedge. When the curved wedge is a small perturbation of a straight wedge and the angle of the wedge is less than some critical value, wwe show that a shock attached at the wedge will exist globally.

In this article we construct the fundamental solutions for the wave equation arising in the de Sitter model of the universe. We use the fundamental solutions to represent solutions of the Cauchy problem and to prove the Lp − Lq-decay estimates for the solutions of the equation with and without a source term.

Contents: 1 Introduction 2 Main result 3 Construction of the asymptotic solutions 3.1 Derivation of the equations for the profiles 3.2 Exsistence of the principal profile 3.3 Determination of Usub(2) and the remaining profiles 4 Stability of the samll global solutions. Justification of One Phase Nonlinear Geometric Optics for the Kirchhoff-type equations 4.1 Stability of the global solutions to the Kirchhoff-type symmetric hyperbolic systems 4.2 The nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations with the parameter 4.3 Some energies estimates 4.4 The dependence of the solution W(t, ξ) on the function s(t) 4.5 The oscillatory integrals of the bilinear forms of the solutions 4.6 Estimates for the basic bilinear form Γsub(s)(t) 4.7 Contraction mapping 4.8 Stability of the global solution 4.9 Justification of One Phase Nonlinear Geometric Optics for the Kirchhoff-type equations

It is shown that bounded solutions to semilinear elliptic Fuchsian equations obey complete asymptoic expansions in terms of powers and logarithms in the distance to the boundary. For that purpose, Schuze's notion of asymptotic type for conormal asymptotics close to a conical point is refined. This in turn allows to perform explicit calculations on asymptotic types - modulo the resolution of the spectral problem for determining the singular exponents in the asmptotic expansions.

Edge representations of operators on closed manifolds are known to induce large classes of operators that are elliptic on specific manifolds with edges, cf. [9]. We apply this idea to the case of boundary value problems. We establish a correspondence between standard ellipticity and ellipticity with respect to the principal symbolic hierarchy of the edge algebra of boundary value problems, where an embedded submanifold on the boundary plays the role of an edge. We first consider the case that the weight is equal to the smoothness and calculate the dimensions of kernels and cokernels of the associated principal edge symbols. Then we pass to elliptic edge operators for arbitrary weights and construct the additional edge conditions by applying relative index results for conormal symbols.

Asymptotic algebras
(2001)

Green formulae for elliptic cone differential operators are established. This is achieved by an accurate description of the maximal domain of an elliptic cone differential operator and its formal adjoint; thereby utilizing the concept of a discrete asymptotic type. From this description, the singular coefficients replacing the boundary traces in classical Green formulas are deduced.

Local asymptotic types
(2002)

It is prooved that mermorphic, parameter-dependet elliptic Mellin symbols can be factorized in a particular way. The proof depends on the availability of logarithms of pseudodifferential operators. As a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of the group generated by pseudodifferential operators admitting a logarithm. The factorization has applications to the theory os pseudodifferential operators on spaces with conical singularities, e.g., to the index theory and the construction of various sub-calculi of the cone calculus.

The dynamics of noisy bistable systems is analyzed by means of Lyapunov exponents and measures of complexity. We consider both the classical Kramers problem with additive white noise and the case when the barrier fluctuates due to additional external colored noise. In case of additive noise we calculate the Lyapunov exponents and all measures of complexity analytically as functions of the noise intensity resp. the mean escape time. For the problem of fluctuating barrier the usual description of the dynamics with the mean escape time is not sufficient. The application of the concept of measures of complexity allows to describe the structures of motion in more detail. Most complexity measures sign the value of correlation time at which the phenomenon of resonant activation occurs with an extremum.

We have used techniques of nonlinear dynamics to compare a special model for the reversals of the Earth's magnetic field with the observational data. Although this model is rather simple, there is no essential difference to the data by means of well-known characteristics, such as correlation function and probability distribution. Applying methods of symbolic dynamics we have found that the considered model is not able to describe the dynamical properties of the observed process. These significant differences are expressed by algorithmic complexity and Renyi information.

In this paper we consider the hypo-ellipticity of differential forms on a closed manifold.The main results show that there are some topological obstruct for the existence of the differential forms with hypoellipticity.

Heterocystous cyanobacteria of the genus Nodularia form extensive blooms in the Baltic Sea and contribute substantially to the total annual primary production. Moreover, they dispense a large fraction of new nitrogen to the ecosystem when inorganic nitrogen concentration in summer is low. Thus, it is of ecological importance to know how Nodularia will react to future environmental changes, in particular to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and what consequences there might arise for cycling of organic matter in the Baltic Sea. Here, we determined carbon (C) and dinitrogen (N-2) fixation rates, growth, elemental stoichiometry of particulate organic matter and nitrogen turnover in batch cultures of the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena under low (median 315 mu atm), mid (median 353 mu atm), and high (median 548 mu atm) CO2 concentrations. Our results demonstrate an overall stimulating effect of rising pCO(2) on C and N-2 fixation, as well as on cell growth. An increase in pCO(2) during incubation days 0 to 9 resulted in an elevation in growth rate by 84 +/- 38% (low vs. high pCO(2)) and 40 +/- 25% (mid vs. high pCO(2)), as well as in N-2 fixation by 93 +/- 35% and 38 +/- 1%, respectively. C uptake rates showed high standard deviations within treatments and in between sampling days. Nevertheless, C fixation in the high pCO(2) treatment was elevated compared to the other two treatments by 97% (high vs. low) and 44% (high vs. mid) at day 0 and day 3, but this effect diminished afterwards. Additionally, elevation in carbon to nitrogen and nitrogen to phosphorus ratios of the particulate biomass formed (POC : POP and PON : POP) was observed at high pCO(2). Our findings suggest that rising pCO(2) stimulates the growth of heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacteria, in a similar way as reported for the non-heterocystous diazotroph Trichodesmium. Implications for biogeochemical cycling and food web dynamics, as well as ecological and socio-economical aspects in the Baltic Sea are discussed.

Preface
(2011)

In a recent paper with N. Tarkhanov, the Lefschetz number for endomorphisms (modulo trace class operators) of sequences of trace class curvature was introduced. We show that this is a well defined, canonical extension of the classical Lefschetz number and establish the homotopy invariance of this number. Moreover, we apply the results to show that the Lefschetz fixed point formula holds for geometric quasiendomorphisms of elliptic quasicomplexes.

Using a special technique of data analysis, we have found out 34 grand minima of solar activity obtained from a 7,700 years long Δ14C record. The method used rests on a proper filtering of the Δ14C record and the extrapolation of verifiable results for the later history back in time. Additionally, we use a method of nonlinear dynamics, the recurrence rate, to back up the results. Our findings are not contradictory to the record of solar maxima resp. minima by Eddy [5], but constitute a considerable extension. Hence, it has become possible to look closer at the validity of models. This way, we have tested several models for solar activity, esp. the model of Barnes et al. [1]. There are hints for that the grand minima might solely be driven by the 209 year period found in the Δ14C record.

Harness-Prozesse
(2010)

Harness-Prozesse finden in der Forschung immer mehr Anwendung. Vor allem gewinnen Harness-Prozesse in stetiger Zeit an Bedeutung. Grundlegende Literatur zu diesem Thema ist allerdings wenig vorhanden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die vorhandene Grundlagenliteratur zu Harness-Prozessen in diskreter und stetiger Zeit aufgearbeitet und Beweise ausgeführt, die bisher nur skizziert waren. Ziel dessen ist die Existenz einer Zerlegung von Harness-Prozessen über Z beziehungsweise R+ nachzuweisen.

The nonlinear interaction of waves excited by the modified two-stream instability (Farley-Buneman instability) is considered. It is found that, during the linear stage of wave growth, the enhanced pressure of the high-frequency part of the waves locally generates a ponderomotive force. This force acts on the plasma particles and redistributes them. Thus an additional electrostatic polarization field occurs, which influences the low-frequency part of the waves. Then, the low-frequency waves also cause a redistribution of the high-frequency waves. In the paper, a self-consistent system of equations is obtained, which describes the nonlinear interaction of the waves. It is shown that the considered mechanism of wave interaction causes a nonlinear stabilization of the high-frequency waves’ growth and a formation of local density structures of the charged particles. The density modifications of the charged particles during the non-linear stage of wave growth and the possible interval of aspect angles of the high-frequency waves are estimated.

Basing on recent solar models, the excitation of ion-acoustic turbulence in the weaklycollisional, fully and partially-ionized regions of the solar atmosphere is investigated. Within the frame of hydrodynamics, conditions are found under which the heating of the plasma by ion-acoustic type waves is more effective than the Joule heating. Taking into account wave and Joule heating effects, a nonlinear differential equation is derived, which describes the evolution of nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in the collisional plasma.

We introduce the calculus of Mellin pseudodifferential operators parameters based on "twisted" operator-valued Volterra symbols as well aas the abstract Mellin calclus with holomorphic symbols. We establish the properties of the symblic and operational calculi, and we give and make use of explicit oscillatory integral formulas on the symbolic side, e. g., for the Leibniz-product, kernel cut-off, and Mellin quantization. Moreover, we introduce the notion of parabolicity for the calculi of Volterra Mellin operators, and construct Volterra parametrices for parabolic operators within the calculi.

The Voyager 2 Photopolarimeter experiment has yielded the highest resolved data of Saturn's rings, exhibiting a wide variety of features. The B-ring region between 105000 km and 110000 km distance from Saturn has been investigated. It has a high matter density and contains no significance features visible by eye. Analysis with statistical methods has let us to the detection of two significant events. These features are correlated with the inner 3:2 resonances of the F-ring shepherd satellites Pandora and Prometheus, and may be evidence of large ring paricles caught in the corotation resonances.

We consider a mixed problem for a degenerate differentialoperator equation of higher order. We establish some embedding theorems in weighted Sobolev spaces and show existence and uniqueness of the generalized solution of this problem. We also give a description of the spectrum for the corresponding operator.

For a sequence of Hilbert spaces and continuous linear operators the curvature is defined to be the composition of any two consecutive operators. This is modeled on the de Rham resolution of a connection on a module over an algebra. Of particular interest are those sequences for which the curvature is "small" at each step, e.g., belongs to a fixed operator ideal. In this context we elaborate the theory of Fredholm sequences and show how to introduce the Lefschetz number.

In order to characterise the C*-algebra generated by the singular Bochner-Martinelli integral over a smooth closed hypersurfaces in Cn, we compute its principal symbol. We show then that the Szegö projection belongs to the strong closure of the algebra generated by the singular Bochner-Martinelli integral.

The Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to the fact the the reciprocal function 1/zeta (s) extends from the interval (1/2,1) to an analytic function in the quarter-strip 1/2 < Re s < 1 and Im s > 0. Function theory allows one to rewrite the condition of analytic continuability in an elegant form amenable to numerical experiments.

By quasicomplexes are usually meant perturbations of complexes small in some sense. Of interest are not only perturbations within the category of complexes but also those going beyond this category. A sequence perturbed in this way is no longer a complex, and so it bears no cohomology. We show how to introduce Euler characteristic for small perturbations of Fredholm complexes. The paper is to appear in Funct. Anal. and its Appl., 2006.

We consider a boundary value problem for an elliptic differential operator of order 2m in a domain D ⊂ n. The boundary of D is smooth outside a finite number of conical points, and the Lopatinskii condition is fulfilled on the smooth part of δD. The corresponding spaces are weighted Sobolev spaces H(up s,Υ)(D), and this allows one to define ellipticity of weight Υ for the problem. The resolvent of the problem is assumed to possess rays of minimal growth. The main result says that if there are rays of minimal growth with angles between neighbouring rays not exceeding π(Υ + 2m)/n, then the root functions of the problem are complete in L²(D). In the case of second order elliptic equations the results remain true for all domains with Lipschitz boundary.

We study the Neumann problem for the de Rham complex in a bounded domain of Rn with singularities on the boundary. The singularities may be general enough, varying from Lipschitz domains to domains with cuspidal edges on the boundary. Following Lopatinskii we reduce the Neumann problem to a singular integral equation of the boundary. The Fredholm solvability of this equation is then equivalent to the Fredholm property of the Neumann problem in suitable function spaces. The boundary integral equation is explicitly written and may be treated in diverse methods. This way we obtain, in particular, asymptotic expansions of harmonic forms near singularities of the boundary.

We show a Lefschetz fixed point formula for holomorphic functions in a bounded domain D with smooth boundary in the complex plane. To introduce the Lefschetz number for a holomorphic map of D, we make use of the Bergman kernal of this domain. The Lefschetz number is proved to be the sum of usual contributions of fixed points of the map in D and contributions of boundary fixed points, these latter being different for attracting and repulsing fixed points.

Anisotropic edge problems
(2002)

We investigate elliptic pseudodifferential operators which degenerate in an anisotropic way on a submanifold of arbitrary codimension. To find Fredholm problems for such operators we adjoint to them boundary and coboundary conditions on the submanifold.The algebra obtained this way is a far reaching generalisation of Boutet de Monvel's algebra of boundary value problems with transmission property. We construct left and right regularisers and prove theorems on hypoellipticity and local solvability.

The present work will introduce a Finite State Machine (FSM) that processes any Collatz Sequence; further, we will endeavor to investigate its behavior in relationship to transformations of a special infinite input. Moreover, we will prove that the machine’s word transformation is equivalent to the standard Collatz number transformation and subsequently discuss the possibilities for use of this approach at solving similar problems. The benefit of this approach is that the investigation of the word transformation performed by the Finite State Machine is less complicated than the traditional number-theoretical transformation.

The Collatz conjecture is a number theoretical problem, which has puzzled countless researchers using myriad approaches. Presently, there are scarcely any methodologies to describe and treat the problem from the perspective of the Algebraic Theory of Automata. Such an approach is promising with respect to facilitating the comprehension of the Collatz sequences "mechanics". The systematic technique of a state machine is both simpler and can fully be described by the use of algebraic means.
The current gap in research forms the motivation behind the present contribution. The present authors are convinced that exploring the Collatz conjecture in an algebraic manner, relying on findings and fundamentals of Graph Theory and Automata Theory, will simplify the problem as a whole.

The Collatz conjecture is a number theoretical problem, which has puzzled countless researchers using myriad approaches. Presently, there are scarcely any methodologies to describe and treat the problem from the perspective of the Algebraic Theory of Automata. Such an approach is promising with respect to facilitating the comprehension of the Collatz sequence’s "mechanics". The systematic technique of a state machine is both simpler and can fully be described by the use of algebraic means.
The current gap in research forms the motivation behind the present contribution. The present authors are convinced that exploring the Collatz conjecture in an algebraic manner, relying on findings and fundamentals of Graph Theory and Automata Theory, will simplify the problem as a whole.

The paper is devoted to asymptotic analysis of the Dirichlet problem for a second order partial differential equation containing a small parameter multiplying the highest order derivatives. It corresponds to a small perturbation of a dynamical system having a stationary solution in the domain. We focus on the case where the trajectories of the system go into the domain and the stationary solution is a proper node.

Long-term policy issues are a particularly vexing class of environmental policy issues which merit increasing attention due to the long-time horizons involved, the incongruity with political cycles, and the challenges for collective action. Following the definition of long-term environmental policy challenges, I pose three questions as challenges for future research, namely 1. Are present democracies well suited to cope with long-term policy challenges? 2. Are top-down or bottom-up solutions to long-term environmental policy challenges advisable? 3. Will mitigation and adaptation of environmental challenges suffice? In concluding, the contribution raises the issue of credible commitment for long-term policy issues and potential design options.

On completeness of root functions of Sturm-Liouville problems with discontinuous boundary operators
(2012)

We consider a Sturm-Liouville boundary value problem in a bounded domain D of R^n. By this is meant that the differential equation is given by a second order elliptic operator of divergent form in D and the boundary conditions are of Robin type on bD. The first order term of the boundary operator is the oblique derivative whose coefficients bear discontinuities of the first kind. Applying the method of weak perturbation of compact self-adjoint operators and the method of rays of minimal growth, we prove the completeness of root functions related to the boundary value problem in Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces of various types.

We consider the Navier-Stokes equations in the layer R^n x [0,T] over R^n with finite T > 0. Using the standard fundamental solutions of the Laplace operator and the heat operator, we reduce the Navier-Stokes equations to a nonlinear Fredholm equation of the form (I+K) u = f, where K is a compact continuous operator in anisotropic normed Hölder spaces weighted at the point at infinity with respect to the space variables. Actually, the weight function is included to provide a finite energy estimate for solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations for all t in [0,T]. On using the particular properties of the de Rham complex we conclude that the Fréchet derivative (I+K)' is continuously invertible at each point of the Banach space under consideration and the map I+K is open and injective in the space. In this way the Navier-Stokes equations prove to induce an open one-to-one mapping in the scale of Hölder spaces.

Let X be a smooth n -dimensional manifold and D be an open connected set in X with smooth boundary ∂D. Perturbing the Cauchy problem for an elliptic system Au = f in D with data on a closed set Γ ⊂ ∂D we obtain a family of mixed problems depending on a small parameter ε > 0. Although the mixed problems are subject to a non-coercive boundary condition on ∂D\Γ in general, each of them is uniquely solvable in an appropriate Hilbert space DT and the corresponding family {uε} of solutions approximates the solution of the Cauchy problem in DT whenever the solution exists. We also prove that the existence of a solution to the Cauchy problem in DT is equivalent to the boundedness of the family {uε}. We thus derive a solvability condition for the Cauchy problem and an effective method of constructing its solution. Examples for Dirac operators in the Euclidean space Rn are considered. In the latter case we obtain a family of mixed boundary problems for the Helmholtz equation.

Formal Poincaré lemma
(2007)

We show how the multiple application of the formal Cauchy-Kovalevskaya theorem leads to the main result of the formal theory of overdetermined systems of partial differential equations. Namely, any sufficiently regular system Au = f with smooth coefficients on an open set U ⊂ Rn admits a solution in smooth sections of a bundle of formal power series, provided that f satisfies a compatibility condition in U.

This is a brief survey of a constructive technique of analytic continuation related to an explicit integral formula of Golusin and Krylov (1933). It goes far beyond complex analysis and applies to the Cauchy problem for elliptic partial differential equations as well. As started in the classical papers, the technique is elaborated in generalised Hardy spaces also called Hardy-Smirnov spaces.

Let A be a determined or overdetermined elliptic differential operator on a smooth compact manifold X. Write Ssub(A)(D) for the space of solutions to thesystem Au = 0 in a domain D ⊂ X. Using reproducing kernels related to various Hilbert structures on subspaces of Ssub(A)(D) we show explicit identifications of the dual spaces. To prove the "regularity" of reproducing kernels up to the boundary of D we specify them as resolution operators of abstract Neumann problems. The matter thus reduces to a regularity theorem for the Neumann problem, a well-known example being the ∂-Neumann problem. The duality itself takes place only for those domains D which possess certain convexity properties with respect to A.

We consider a (generally, non-coercive) mixed boundary value problem in a bounded domain for a second order elliptic differential operator A. The differential operator is assumed to be of divergent form and the boundary operator B is of Robin type. The boundary is assumed to be a Lipschitz surface. Besides, we distinguish a closed subset of the boundary and control the growth of solutions near this set. We prove that the pair (A,B) induces a Fredholm operator L in suitable weighted spaces of Sobolev type, the weight function being a power of the distance to the singular set. Moreover, we prove the completeness of root functions related to L.

We prove the existence of Hp(D)-limit of iterations of double layer potentials constructed with the use of Hodge parametrix on a smooth compact manifold X, D being an open connected subset of X. This limit gives us an orthogonal projection from Sobolev space Hp(D) to a closed subspace of Hp(D)-solutions of an elliptic operator P of order p ≥ 1. Using this result we obtain formulae for Sobolev solutions to the equation Pu = f in D whenever these solutions exist. This representation involves the sum of a series whose terms are iterations of double layer potentials. Similar regularization is constructed also for a P-Neumann problem in D.

Let Hsub(0), Hsub(1) be Hilbert spaces and L : Hsub(0) -> Hsub(1) be a linear bounded operator with ||L|| ≤ 1. Then L*L is a bounded linear self-adjoint non-negative operator in the Hilbert space Hsub(0) and one can use the Neumann series ∑∞sub(v=0)(I - L*L)v L*f in order to study solvability of the operator equation Lu = f. In particular, applying this method to the ill-posed Cauchy problem for solutions to an elliptic system Pu = 0 of linear PDE's of order p with smooth coefficients we obtain solvability conditions and representation formulae for solutions of the problem in Hardy spaces whenever these solutions exist. For the Cauchy-Riemann system in C the summands of the Neumann series are iterations of the Cauchy type integral. We also obtain similar results 1) for the equation Pu = f in Sobolev spaces, 2) for the Dirichlet problem and 3) for the Neumann problem related to operator P*P if P is a homogeneous first order operator and its coefficients are constant. In these cases the representations involve sums of series whose terms are iterations of integro-differential operators, while the solvability conditions consist of convergence of the series together with trivial necessary conditions.

Removing spatial responses reveals spatial concepts even in a culture with mixed reading habits
(2014)

Inflammation in Cachexia
(2015)

We have numerically studied the bifurcation properties of a sheet pinch with impenetrable stress-free boundaries. An incompressible, electrically conducting fluid with spatially and temporally uniform kinematic viscosity and magnetic diffusivity is confined between planes at x1=0 and 1. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed in the x2 and x3 directions and the magnetofluid is driven by an electric field in the x3 direction, prescribed on the boundary planes. There is a stationary basic state with the fluid at rest and a uniform current J=(0,0,J3). Surprisingly, this basic state proves to be stable and apparently to be the only time-asymptotic state, no matter how strong the applied electric field and irrespective of the other control parameters of the system, namely, the magnetic Prandtl number, the spatial periods L2 and L3 in the x2 and x3 directions, and the mean values B¯2 and B¯3 of the magnetic-field components in these directions.

The stability of the quiescent ground state of an incompressible viscous fluid sheet bounded by two parallel planes, with an electrical conductivity varying across the sheet, and driven by an external electric field tangential to the boundaries is considered. It is demonstrated that irrespective of the conductivity profile, as magnetic and kinetic Reynolds numbers (based on the Alfvén velocity) are raised from small values, two-dimensional perturbations become unstable first.

The stability of the quiescent ground state of an incompressible, viscous and electrically conducting fluid sheet, bounded by stress-free parallel planes and driven by an external electric field tangential to the boundaries, is studied numerically. The electrical conductivity varies as cosh–2(x1/a), where x1 is the cross-sheet coordinate and a is the half width of a current layer centered about the midplane of the sheet. For a <~ 0.4L, where L is the distance between the boundary planes, the ground state is unstable to disturbances whose wavelengths parallel to the sheet lie between lower and upper bounds depending on the value of a and on the Hartmann number. Asymmetry of the configuration with respect to the midplane of the sheet, modelled by the addition of an externally imposed constant magnetic field to a symmetric equilibrium field, acts as a stabilizing factor.

It is shown that the ff effect of mean-field magnetohydrodynamics, which consists in the generation of a mean electromotive force along the mean magnetic field by turbulently fluctuating parts of velocity and magnetic field, is equivalent to the simultaneous generation of both turbulent and mean-field magnetic helicities, the generation rates being equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. In the particular case of statistically stationary and homogeneous fluctuations this implies that the ff effect can increase the energy in the mean magnetic field only under the condition that also magnetic helicity is accumulated there.

Many perceptual and cognitive tasks permit or require the integrated cooperation of specialized sensory channels, detectors, or other functionally separate units. In compound detection or discrimination tasks, 1 prominent general mechanism to model the combination of the output of different processing channels is probability summation. The classical example is the binocular summation model of Pirenne (1943), according to which a weak visual stimulus is detected if at least 1 of the 2 eyes detects this stimulus; as we review briefly, exactly the same reasoning is applied in numerous other fields. It is generally accepted that this mechanism necessarily predicts performance based on 2 (or more) channels to be superior to single channel performance, because 2 separate channels provide "2 chances" to succeed with the task. We argue that this reasoning is misleading because it neglects the increased opportunity with 2 channels not just for hits but also for false alarms and that there may well be no redundancy gain at all when performance is measured in terms of receiver operating characteristic curves. We illustrate and support these arguments with a visual detection experiment involving different spatial uncertainty conditions. Our arguments and findings have important implications for all models that, in one way or another, rest on, or incorporate, the notion of probability summation for the analysis of detection tasks, 2-alternative forced-choice tasks, and psychometric functions.

Aus dem Inhalt: 1. Einführung 2. Motivation für die nichtlineare Dynamik 3. Logistische Abbildung (Parabel-Abbildung) 4. Lorenz-Gleichungen 5. Fraktale Selbstähnlichkeit 6. Die Brownsche Bewegung 7. Stöße & Billards 8. Körper mit gravitativer Wechselwirkung 9. Glossar 10. Turbo-Pascal-Texte 11. IDL-Texte 12. Reduce-Texte

A numerical bifurcation analysis of the electrically driven plane sheet pinch is presented. The electrical conductivity varies across the sheet such as to allow instability of the quiescent basic state at some critical Hartmann number. The most unstable perturbation is the two-dimensional tearing mode. Restricting the whole problem to two spatial dimensions, this mode is followed up to a time-asymptotic steady state, which proves to be sensitive to three-dimensional perturbations even close to the point where the primary instability sets in. A comprehensive three-dimensional stability analysis of the two-dimensional steady tearing-mode state is performed by varying parameters of the sheet pinch. The instability with respect to three-dimensional perturbations is suppressed by a sufficiently strong magnetic field in the invariant direction of the equilibrium. For a special choice of the system parameters, the unstably perturbed state is followed up in its nonlinear evolution and is found to approach a three-dimensional steady state.

The ellipticity of boundary value problems on a smooth manifold with boundary relies on a two-component principal symbolic structure (σψ; σ∂), consisting of interior and boundary symbols. In the case of a smooth edge on manifolds with boundary we have a third symbolic component, namely the edge symbol σ∧, referring to extra conditions on the edge, analogously as boundary conditions. Apart from such conditions in integral form' there may exist singular trace conditions, investigated in [6] on closed' manifolds with edge. Here we concentrate on the phenomena in combination with boundary conditions and edge problem.

Green operators on manifolds with edges are known to be an ingredient of parametrices of elliptic (edge-degenerate) operators. They play a similar role as corresponding operators in boundary value problems. Close to edge singularities the Green operators have a very complex asymptotic behaviour. We give a new characterisation of Green edge symbols in terms of kernels with discrete and continuous asymptotics in the axial variable of local model cones.

The aim of this book is to develop the Lefschetz fixed point theory for elliptic complexes of pseudodifferential operators on manifolds with edges. The general Lefschetz theory contains the index theory as a special case, while the case to be studied is much more easier than the index problem. The main topics are: - The calculus of pseudodifferential operators on manifolds with edges, especially symbol structures (inner as well as edge symbols). - The concept of ellipticity, parametrix constructions, elliptic regularity in Sobolev spaces. - Hodge theory for elliptic complexes of pseudodifferential operators on manifolds with edges. - Development of the algebraic constructions for these complexes, such as homotopy, tensor products, duality. - A generalization of the fixed point formula of Atiyah and Bott for the case of simple fixed points. - Development of the fixed point formula also in the case of non-simple fixed points, provided that the complex consists of diferential operarators only. - Investigation of geometric complexes (such as, for instance, the de Rham complex and the Dolbeault complex). Results in this direction are desirable because of both purely mathe matical reasons and applications in natural sciences.

We describe a new algebra of boundary value problems which contains Lopatinskii elliptic as well as Toeplitz type conditions. These latter are necessary, if an analogue of the Atiyah-Bott obstruction does not vanish. Every elliptic operator is proved to admit up to a stabilisation elliptic conditions of such a kind. Corresponding boundary value problems are then Fredholm in adequate scales of spaces. The crucial novelty consists of the new type of weighted Sobolev spaces which serve as domains of pseudodifferential operators and which fit well to the nature of operators.

On a compact closed manifold with edges live pseudodifferential operators which are block matrices of operators with additional edge conditions like boundary conditions in boundary value problems. They include Green, trace and potential operators along the edges, act in a kind of Sobolev spaces and form an algebra with a wealthy symbolic structure. We consider complexes of Fréchet spaces whose differentials are given by operators in this algebra. Since the algebra in question is a microlocalization of the Lie algebra of typical vector fields on a manifold with edges, such complexes are of great geometric interest. In particular, the de Rham and Dolbeault complexes on manifolds with edges fit into this framework. To each complex there correspond two sequences of symbols, one of the two controls the interior ellipticity while the other sequence controls the ellipticity at the edges. The elliptic complexes prove to be Fredholm, i.e., have a finite-dimensional cohomology. Using specific tools in the algebra of pseudodifferential operators we develop a Hodge theory for elliptic complexes and outline a few applications thereof.

We consider a homogeneous pseudodifferential equation on a cylinder C = IR x X over a smooth compact closed manifold X whose symbol extends to a meromorphic function on the complex plane with values in the algebra of pseudodifferential operators over X. When assuming the symbol to be independent on the variable t element IR, we show an explicit formula for solutions of the equation. Namely, to each non-bijectivity point of the symbol in the complex plane there corresponds a finite-dimensional space of solutions, every solution being the residue of a meromorphic form manufactured from the inverse symbol. In particular, for differential equations we recover Euler's theorem on the exponential solutions. Our setting is model for the analysis on manifolds with conical points since C can be thought of as a 'stretched' manifold with conical points at t = -infinite and t = infinite.

The paper contains the proof of the index formula for manifolds with conical points. For operators subject to an additional condition of spectral symmetry, the index is expressed as the sum of multiplicities of spectral points of the conormal symbol (indicial family) and the integral from the Atiyah-Singer form over the smooth part of the manifold. The obtained formula is illustrated by the example of the Euler operator on a two-dimensional manifold with conical singular point.

We construct a theory of general boundary value problems for differential operators whose symbols do not necessarily satisfy the Atiyah-Bott condition [3] of vanishing of the corresponding obstruction. A condition for these problems to be Fredholm is introduced and the corresponding finiteness theorems are proved.

The homotopy classification and the index of boundary value problems for general elliptic operators
(1999)

We give the homotopy classification and compute the index of boundary value problems for elliptic equations. The classical case of operators that satisfy the Atiyah-Bott condition is studied first. We also consider the general case of boundary value problems for operators that do not necessarily satisfy the Atiyah-Bott condition.

We prove the existence of a limit in Hm(D) of iterations of a double layer potential constructed from the Hodge parametrix on a smooth compact manifold with boundary, X, and a crack S ⊂ ∂D, D being a domain in X. Using this result we obtain formulas for Sobolev solutions to the Cauchy problem in D with data on S, for an elliptic operator A of order m ≥ 1, whenever these solutions exist. This representation involves the sum of a series whose terms are iterations of the double layer potential. A similar regularisation is constructed also for a mixed problem in D.