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Anisotropic material properties are usually neglected during inversions for source parameters of earthquakes. In general anisotropic media, however, moment tensors for pure-shear sources can exhibit significant non-double-couple components. Such effects may be erroneously interpreted as an indication for volumetric changes at the source. Here we investigate effects of anisotropy on seismic moment tensors and radiation patterns for pure-shear and tensile-type sources. Anisotropy can significantly influence the interpretation of the source mechanisms. For example, the orientation of the slip within the fault plane may affect the total seismic moment. Also, moment tensors due to pure- shear and tensile faulting can have similar characteristics depending on the orientation of the elastic tensor. Furthermore, the tensile nature of an earthquake can be obscured by near-source anisotropic properties. As an application, we consider effects of inhomogeneous anisotropic properties on the seismic moment tensor and the radiation patterns of a selected type of micro-earthquakes observed in W-Bohemia. The combined effects of near-source and along- path anisotropy cause characteristic amplitude distortions of the P, S1 and S2 waves. However, the modeling suggests that neither homogeneous nor inhomogeneous anisotropic properties alone can explain the observed large non-double-couple components. The results also indicate that a correct analysis of the source mechanism, in principle, is achievable by application of anisotropic moment tensor inversion

An der Universität Potsdam wird seit 2008 ein automatisiertes Verfahren angewandt, um Bruchparamter großer Erdbeben in quasi-Echtzeit, d.h. wenige Minuten nachdem sich das Beben ereignet hat, zu bestimmen und der Öffentlichkeit via Internet zur Verfügung zu stellen. Es ist vorgesehen, das System in das Deutsch-Indonesische Tsunamifrühwarnsystem (GITEWS) zu integrieren, für das es speziell konfiguriert ist. Wir bestimmen insbesondere die Dauer und die Ausdehnung des Erdbebens, sowie dessen Bruchgeschwindigkeit und -richtung. Dabei benutzen wir die Seismogramme der zuerst eintreffenden P Wellen vom Breitbandstationen in teleseimischer Entfernung vom Beben sowie herkömmliche Arrayverfahren in teilweise modifizierter Form. Die Semblance wir als Ähnlichkeitsmaß verwendet, um Seismogramme eines Stationsnetzes zu vergleichen. Im Falle eines Erdbebens ist die Semblance unter Berücksichtigung des Hypozentrums zur Herdzeit und während des Bruchvorgangs deutlich zeitlich und räumlich erhöht und konzentriert. Indem wir die Ergebnisse verschiedener Stationsnetzwerke kombinieren, erreichen wir Unabhängigkeit von der Herdcharakteristik und eine raum-zeitliche Auflösung, die es erlaubt die o.g. Parameter abzuleiten. In unserem Beitrag skizzieren wir die Methode. Anhand der beiden M8.0 Benkulu Erdbeben (Sumatra, Indonesien) vom 12.09.2007 und dem M8.0 Sichuan Ereignis (China) vom 12.05.2008 demonstrieren wir Auflösungsmöglichkeiten und vergleichen die Ergebnisse der automatisierten Echtzeitanwendung mit nachträglichen Berechnungen. Weiterhin stellen wir eine Internetseite zur Verfügung, die die Ergebnisse präsentiert und animiert. Diese kann z.B. in geowissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen an Computerterminals gezeigt werden. Die Internetauftritte haben die folgenden Adressen: http://www.geo.uni-potsdam.de/arbeitsgruppen/Geophysik_Seismologie/forschung/ruptrack/openday http://www.geo.uni-potsdam.de/arbeitsgruppen/Geophysik_Seismologie/forschung/ruptrack

We use seismic array methods (semblance analysis) to image areas of seismic energy release in the Sunda Arc region and world-wide. Broadband seismograms at teleseismic distances (30° ≤ Δ ≤ 100°) are compared at several subarrays. Semblance maps of different subarrays are multiplied. High semblance tracked over long time (10s of second to minutes) and long distances indicate locations of earthquakes. The method allows resolution of rupture characteristics important for tsunami early warning: start and duration, velocity and direction, length and area. The method has been successfully applied to recent and historic events (M>6.5) and is now operational in real time. Results are obtained shortly after source time, see http://www.geo.uni-potsdam.de/Forschung/Geophysik/GITEWS/tsunami.htm). Comparison of manual and automatic processing are in good agreement. Computational effort is small. Automatic results may be obtained within 15 - 20 minutes after event occurrence.

Earthquakes occurring close to hydrocarbon fields under production are often under critical view of being induced or triggered. However, clear and testable rules to discriminate the different events have rarely been developed and tested. The unresolved scientific problem may lead to lengthy public disputes with unpredictable impact on the local acceptance of the exploitation and field operations. We propose a quantitative approach to discriminate induced, triggered, and natural earthquakes, which is based on testable input parameters. Maxima of occurrence probabilities are compared for the cases under question, and a single probability of being triggered or induced is reported. The uncertainties of earthquake location and other input parameters are considered in terms of the integration over probability density functions. The probability that events have been human triggered/induced is derived from the modeling of Coulomb stress changes and a rate and state-dependent seismicity model. In our case a 3-D boundary element method has been adapted for the nuclei of strain approach to estimate the stress changes outside the reservoir, which are related to pore pressure changes in the field formation. The predicted rate of natural earthquakes is either derived from the background seismicity or, in case of rare events, from an estimate of the tectonic stress rate. Instrumentally derived seismological information on the event location, source mechanism, and the size of the rupture plane is of advantage for the method. If the rupture plane has been estimated, the discrimination between induced or only triggered events is theoretically possible if probability functions are convolved with a rupture fault filter. We apply the approach to three recent main shock events: (1) the M-w 4.3 Ekofisk 2001, North Sea, earthquake close to the Ekofisk oil field; (2) the M-w 4.4 Rotenburg 2004, Northern Germany, earthquake in the vicinity of the Sohlingen gas field; and (3) the M-w 6.1 Emilia 2012, Northern Italy, earthquake in the vicinity of a hydrocarbon reservoir. The three test cases cover the complete range of possible causes: clearly human induced, not even human triggered, and a third case in between both extremes.

The complex system of strike-slip and thrust faults in the Alborz Mountains, Northern Iran, are not well understood yet. Mainly structural and geomorphic data are available so far. As a more extensive base for seismotectonic studies and seismic hazard analysis we plan to do a comprehensive seismic moment tensor study also from smaller magnitudes (M < 4.5) by developing a new algorithm. Here, we present first preliminary results.

We develop an amplitude spectral ratio method for event couples from clustered earthquakes to estimate seismic wave attenuation (Q-1) in the source volume. The method allows to study attenuation within the source region of earthquake swarms or aftershocks at depth, independent of wave path and attenuation between source region and surface station. We exploit the high-frequency slope of phase spectra using multitaper spectral estimates. The method is tested using simulated full wave-field seismograms affected by recorded noise and finite source rupture. The synthetic tests verify the approach and show that solutions are independent of focal mechanisms but also show that seismic noise may broaden the scatter of results. We apply the event couple spectral ratio method to northwest Bohemia, Czech Republic, a region characterized by the persistent occurrence of earthquake swarms in a confined source region at mid-crustal depth. Our method indicates a strong anomaly of high attenuation in the source region of the swarm with an averaged attenuation factor of Qp < 100. The application to S phases fails due to scattered P-phase energy interfering with S phases. The Qp anomaly supports the common hypothesis of highly fractured and fluid saturated rocks in the source region of the swarms in northwest Bohemia. However, high temperatures in a small volume around the swarms cannot be excluded to explain our observations.

The H/V spectral ratio has emerged as a single station method within the seismic ambient noise analysis field by its capability to quickly estimate the frequency of resonance at a site and through inversion the average profile information. Although it is easy to compute from experimental data, its counter theoretical part is not obvious when building a forward model which can help in reconstructing the derived H/V spectrum. This has led to the simplified assumption that the noise wavefield is mainly composed of Rayleigh waves and the derived H/V often used without further correction. Furthermore, only the right (and left) flank around the H/V peak frequency is considered in the inversion for the subsurface 1-D shear wave velocity profile. A new theoretical approach for the interpretation of the H/V spectral ratio has been presented by Sanchez-Sesmaet al. In this paper, the fundamental idea behind their theory is presented as it applies to receivers at depth. A smooth H/V(z, f) spectral curve on a broad frequency range is obtained by considering a fine integration step which is in turn time consuming. We show that for practical purposes and in the context of inversion, this can be considerably optimized by using a coarse integration step combined with the smoothing of the corresponding directional energy density (DED) spectrum. Further analysis shows that the obtained H/V(z, f) spectrum computed by the mean of the imaginary part of Green's function method could also be recovered using the reflectivity method for a medium well illuminated by seismic sources. Inversion of synthetic H/V(z, f) spectral curve is performed for a single layer over a half space. The striking results allow to potentially use the new theory as a forward computation of the H/V(z, f) to fully invert the experimental H/V spectral ratio at the corresponding depth for the shear velocity profile (Vs) and additionally the compressional velocity profile (Vp) using receivers both at the surface and in depth. We use seismic ambient noise data in the frequency range of 0.2-50 Hz recorded at two selected sites in Germany where borehole information is also available. The obtained 1-D Vs and Vp profiles are correlated with geological log information. Results from shallow geophysical experiment are also used for comparison.