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- surface chemistry (2)
- dissipative dynamics (1)
- isotope effects (1)
- laser chemistry (1)
- photochemistry (1)
- quantum control (1)
- quantum dynamics (1)
- ultrafast reactions (1)

#### Institute

Laser-induced condensed phase reactions are often interpreted as nonequilibrium phenomena that go beyond conventional thermodynamics. Here, we show by Langevin dynamics and for the example of femtosecond-laser desorption of hydrogen from a ruthenium surface that light adsorbates thermalize rapidly due to ultrafast energy redistribution after laser excitation. Despite the complex reaction mechanism involving hot electrons in the surface region, all desorption product properties are characterized by equilibrium distributions associated with a single, unique temperature. This represents an example of ultrahot chemistry on the subpicosecond time scale.

We investigate the effect of intermode coupling and anharmonicity on the excitation and relaxation dynamics of CO on Cu(100). The nonadiabatic coupling of the adsorbate to the surface is treated perturbatively using a position-dependent state-resolved transition rate model. Using the potential energy surface of Marquardt et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074108 (2010)], which provides an accurate description of intermode interactions, we propose a four-dimensional model that represents simultaneously the diffusion and the desorption of the adsorbate. The system is driven by both rational and optimized infrared laser pulses to favor either selective mode and state excitations or lateral displacement along the diffusion coordinate. The dissipative dynamics is simulated using the reduced density matrix in its Lindblad form. We show that coupling between the degrees of freedom, mediated by the creation and annihilation of electron-hole pairs in the metal substrate, significantly affects the system excitation and relaxation dynamics. In particular, the angular degrees of freedom appear to play an important role in the energy redistribution among the molecule-surface vibrations. We also show that coherent excitation using simple IR pulses can achieve population transfer to a specific target to some extent but does not allow enforcement of the directionality to the diffusion motion.

The role of electronic friction and, more generally, of nonadiabatic effects during dynamical processes at the gas/metal surface interface is still a matter of discussion. In particular, it is not clear if electronic nonadiabaticity has an effect under "mild" conditions, when molecules in low rovibrational states interact with a metal surface. In this paper, we investigate the role of electronic friction on the dissociative sticking and (inelastic) scattering of vibrationally and rotationally cold H-2 molecules at a Ru(0001) surface theoretically. For this purpose, classical molecular dynamics with electronic friction (MDEF) calculations are performed and compared to MD simulations without friction. The two H atoms move on a six-dimensional potential energy surface generated from gradient-corrected density functional theory (DFT), that is, all molecular degrees of freedom are accounted for. Electronic friction is included via atomic friction coefficients obtained from an embedded atom, free electron gas (FEG) model, with embedding densities taken from gradient-corrected DFT. We find that within this model, dissociative sticking probabilities as a function of impact kinetic energies and impact angles are hardly affected by nonadiabatic effects. If one accounts for a possibly enhanced electronic friction near the dissociation barrier, on the other hand, reduced sticking probabilities are observed, in particular, at high impact energies. Further, there is always an influence on inelastic scattering, in particular, as far as the translational and internal energy distribution of the reflected molecules is concerned. Additionally, our results shed light on the role played by the velocity distribution of the incident molecular beam for adsorption probabilities, where, in particular, at higher impact energies, large effects are found.

We investigate the recombinative desorption of hydrogen and deuterium from a Ru(0001) surface initiated by femtosecond laser pulses. We adopt a quantum mechanical two-state model including three molecular degrees of freedom to describe the dynamics within the desorption induced by electronic transition (DIET) limit. The energy distributions as well as the state-resolved and ensemble properties of the desorbed molecules are analyzed in detail by using the time-energy method. Our results shed light on the experimentally observed 1) large isotopic effects regarding desorption yields and translational energies and 2) the nonequal energy partitioning into internal and translational modes. In particular, it is shown that a single temperature is sufficient to characterize the energy distributions for all degrees of freedom. Further, we confirm that quantization effects play an important role in the determination of the energy partitioning.

Selective excitation of molecule-surface vibrations in H2 and D2 dissociatively adsorbed on Ru(0001)
(2012)

In this contribution we report about the selective vibrational excitation of H2 and D2 on Ru(0001) as an example for nonadiabatic coupling of an open quantum system to a dissipative environment. We investigate the possibility of achieving state-selective vibrational excitations of H2 and D2 adsorbed on a Ru(0001) surface using picosecond infrared laser pulses. The systems behavior is explored using pulses that are rationally designed and others that are optimized using a time-local variant of Optimal Control Theory. The effects of dissipation on the laser-driven dynamics are studied using the reduced-density matrix formalism. The non-adiabatic couplings between adsorbate and surface are computed perturbatively, for which our recently introduced state-resolved anharmonic rate model is used. It is shown that mode- and state-selective excitation can be achieved in the absence of dissipation when using optimized laser pulses. The inclusion of dissipation in the model reduces the state selectivity and the population transfer yield to highly excited states. In this case, mode activation is most effectively realized by a rational pulse of carefully chosen duration rather than by a locally optimized pulse.