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Numerous reports of relatively rapid climate changes over the past century make a clear case of the impact of aerosols and clouds, identified as sources of largest uncertainty in climate projections. Earth’s radiation balance is altered by aerosols depending on their size, morphology and chemical composition. Competing effects in the atmosphere can be further studied by investigating the evolution of aerosol microphysical properties, which are the focus of the present work.
The aerosol size distribution, the refractive index, and the single scattering albedo are commonly used such properties linked to aerosol type, and radiative forcing. Highly advanced lidars (light detection and ranging) have reduced aerosol monitoring and optical profiling into a routine process. Lidar data have been widely used to retrieve the size distribution through the inversion of the so-called Lorenz-Mie model (LMM). This model offers a reasonable treatment for spherically approximated particles, it no longer provides, though, a viable description for other naturally occurring arbitrarily shaped particles, such as dust particles. On the other hand, non-spherical geometries as simple as spheroids reproduce certain optical properties with enhanced accuracy. Motivated by this, we adapt the LMM to accommodate the spheroid-particle approximation introducing the notion of a two-dimensional (2D) shape-size distribution.
Inverting only a few optical data points to retrieve the shape-size distribution is classified as a non-linear ill-posed problem. A brief mathematical analysis is presented which reveals the inherent tendency towards highly oscillatory solutions, explores the available options for a generalized solution through regularization methods and quantifies the ill-posedness. The latter will improve our understanding on the main cause fomenting instability in the produced solution spaces. The new approach facilitates the exploitation of additional lidar data points from depolarization measurements, associated with particle non-sphericity. However, the generalization of LMM vastly increases the complexity of the problem. The underlying theory for the calculation of the involved optical cross sections (T-matrix theory) is computationally so costly, that would limit a retrieval analysis to an unpractical point. Moreover the discretization of the model equation by a 2D collocation method, proposed in this work, involves double integrations which are further time consuming. We overcome these difficulties by using precalculated databases and a sophisticated retrieval software (SphInX: Spheroidal Inversion eXperiments) especially developed for our purposes, capable of performing multiple-dataset inversions and producing a wide range of microphysical retrieval outputs.
Hybrid regularization in conjunction with minimization processes is used as a basis for our algorithms. Synthetic data retrievals are performed simulating various atmospheric scenarios in order to test the efficiency of different regularization methods. The gap in contemporary literature in providing full sets of uncertainties in a wide variety of numerical instances is of major concern here. For this, the most appropriate methods are identified through a thorough analysis on an overall-behavior basis regarding accuracy and stability. The general trend of the initial size distributions is captured in our numerical experiments and the reconstruction quality depends on data error level. Moreover, the need for more or less depolarization points is explored for the first time from the point of view of the microphysical retrieval. Finally, our approach is tested in various measurement cases giving further insight for future algorithm improvements.

We study the interplay between analysis on manifolds with singularities and complex analysis and develop new structures of operators based on the Mellin transform and tools for iterating the calculus for higher singularities. We refer to the idea of interpreting boundary value problems (BVPs) in terms of pseudo-differential operators with a principal symbolic hierarchy, taking into account that BVPs are a source of cone and edge operator algebras. The respective cone and edge pseudo-differential algebras in turn are the starting point of higher corner theories. In addition there are deep relationships between corner operators and complex analysis. This will be illustrated by the Mellin symbolic calculus.

This thesis is focused on the study and the exact simulation of two classes of real-valued Brownian diffusions: multi-skew Brownian motions with constant drift and Brownian diffusions whose drift admits a finite number of jumps.
The skew Brownian motion was introduced in the sixties by Itô and McKean, who constructed it from the reflected Brownian motion, flipping its excursions from the origin with a given probability. Such a process behaves as the original one except at the point 0, which plays the role of a semipermeable barrier. More generally, a skew diffusion with several semipermeable barriers, called multi-skew diffusion, is a diffusion everywhere except when it reaches one of the barriers, where it is partially reflected with a probability depending on that particular barrier. Clearly, a multi-skew diffusion can be characterized either as solution of a stochastic differential equation involving weighted local times (these terms providing the semi-permeability) or by its infinitesimal generator as Markov process.
In this thesis we first obtain a contour integral representation for the transition semigroup of the multiskew Brownian motion with constant drift, based on a fine analysis of its complex properties. Thanks to this representation we write explicitly the transition densities of the two-skew Brownian motion with constant drift as an infinite series involving, in particular, Gaussian functions and their tails.
Then we propose a new useful application of a generalization of the known rejection sampling method. Recall that this basic algorithm allows to sample from a density as soon as one finds an - easy to sample - instrumental density verifying that the ratio between the goal and the instrumental densities is a bounded function. The generalized rejection sampling method allows to sample exactly from densities for which indeed only an approximation is known. The originality of the algorithm lies in the fact that one finally samples directly from the law without any approximation, except the machine's.
As an application, we sample from the transition density of the two-skew Brownian motion with or without constant drift. The instrumental density is the transition density of the Brownian motion with constant drift, and we provide an useful uniform bound for the ratio of the densities. We also present numerical simulations to study the efficiency of the algorithm.
The second aim of this thesis is to develop an exact simulation algorithm for a Brownian diffusion whose drift admits several jumps. In the literature, so far only the case of a continuous drift (resp. of a drift with one finite jump) was treated. The theoretical method we give allows to deal with any finite number of discontinuities. Then we focus on the case of two jumps, using the transition densities of the two-skew Brownian motion obtained before. Various examples are presented and the efficiency of our approach is discussed.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has resisted nearly three decades of efforts targeting a cure. Sustained suppression of the virus has remained a challenge, mainly due
to the remarkable evolutionary adaptation that the virus exhibits by the accumulation of drug-resistant mutations in its genome. Current therapeutic strategies aim at achieving and maintaining a low viral burden and typically involve multiple drugs. The choice of optimal combinations of these drugs is crucial, particularly in the background of treatment failure having occurred previously with certain other drugs. An understanding of the dynamics of viral mutant genotypes aids in the assessment of treatment failure with a certain drug
combination, and exploring potential salvage treatment regimens.
Mathematical models of viral dynamics have proved invaluable in understanding the viral life cycle and the impact of antiretroviral drugs. However, such models typically use simplified and coarse-grained mutation schemes, that curbs the extent of their application to drug-specific clinical mutation data, in order to assess potential next-line therapies. Statistical
models of mutation accumulation have served well in dissecting mechanisms of resistance evolution by reconstructing mutation pathways under different drug-environments. While these models perform well in predicting treatment outcomes by statistical learning, they do not incorporate drug effect mechanistically. Additionally, due to an inherent lack of
temporal features in such models, they are less informative on aspects such as predicting mutational abundance at treatment failure. This limits their application in analyzing the
pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs, in particular, time-dependent characteristics of HIV therapy such as pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and also in understanding the impact of drug efficacy on mutation dynamics.
In this thesis, we develop an integrated model of in vivo viral dynamics incorporating drug-specific mutation schemes learned from clinical data. Our combined modelling
approach enables us to study the dynamics of different mutant genotypes and assess mutational abundance at virological failure. As an application of our model, we estimate in vivo
fitness characteristics of viral mutants under different drug environments. Our approach also extends naturally to multiple-drug therapies. Further, we demonstrate the versatility of our model by showing how it can be modified to incorporate recently elucidated mechanisms of drug action including molecules that target host factors.
Additionally, we address another important aspect in the clinical management of HIV disease, namely drug pharmacokinetics. It is clear that time-dependent changes in in vivo
drug concentration could have an impact on the antiviral effect, and also influence decisions on dosing intervals. We present a framework that provides an integrated understanding
of key characteristics of multiple-dosing regimens including drug accumulation ratios and half-lifes, and then explore the impact of drug pharmacokinetics on viral suppression.
Finally, parameter identifiability in such nonlinear models of viral dynamics is always a concern, and we investigate techniques that alleviate this issue in our setting.

Change points in time series are perceived as heterogeneities in the statistical or dynamical characteristics of the observations. Unraveling such transitions yields essential information for the understanding of the observed system’s intrinsic evolution and potential external influences. A precise detection of multiple changes is therefore of great importance for various research disciplines, such as environmental sciences, bioinformatics and economics. The primary purpose of the detection approach introduced in this thesis is the investigation of transitions underlying direct or indirect climate observations. In order to develop a diagnostic approach capable to capture such a variety of natural processes, the generic statistical features in terms of central tendency and dispersion are employed in the light of Bayesian inversion. In contrast to established Bayesian approaches to multiple changes, the generic approach proposed in this thesis is not formulated in the framework of specialized partition models of high dimensionality requiring prior specification, but as a robust kernel-based approach of low dimensionality employing least informative prior distributions.
First of all, a local Bayesian inversion approach is developed to robustly infer on the location and the generic patterns of a single transition. The analysis of synthetic time series comprising changes of different observational evidence, data loss and outliers validates the performance, consistency and sensitivity of the inference algorithm. To systematically investigate time series for multiple changes, the Bayesian inversion is extended to a kernel-based inference approach. By introducing basic kernel measures, the weighted kernel inference results are composed into a proxy probability to a posterior distribution of multiple transitions. The detection approach is applied to environmental time series from the Nile river in Aswan and the weather station Tuscaloosa, Alabama comprising documented changes. The method’s performance confirms the approach as a powerful diagnostic tool to decipher multiple changes underlying direct climate observations.
Finally, the kernel-based Bayesian inference approach is used to investigate a set of complex terrigenous dust records interpreted as climate indicators of the African region of the Plio-Pleistocene period. A detailed inference unravels multiple transitions underlying the indirect climate observations, that are interpreted as conjoint changes. The identified conjoint changes coincide with established global climate events. In particular, the two-step transition associated to the establishment of the modern Walker-Circulation contributes to the current discussion about the influence of paleoclimate changes on the environmental conditions in tropical and subtropical Africa at around two million years ago.

It is "scientific folklore" coming from physical heuristics that solutions to the heat equation on a Riemannian manifold can be represented by a path integral. However, the problem with such path integrals is that they are notoriously ill-defined. One way to make them rigorous (which is often applied in physics) is finite-dimensional approximation, or time-slicing approximation: Given a fine partition of the time interval into small subintervals, one restricts the integration domain to paths that are geodesic on each subinterval of the partition. These finite-dimensional integrals are well-defined, and the (infinite-dimensional) path integral then is defined as the limit of these (suitably normalized) integrals, as the mesh of the partition tends to zero.
In this thesis, we show that indeed, solutions to the heat equation on a general compact Riemannian manifold with boundary are given by such time-slicing path integrals. Here we consider the heat equation for general Laplace type operators, acting on sections of a vector bundle. We also obtain similar results for the heat kernel, although in this case, one has to restrict to metrics satisfying a certain smoothness condition at the boundary. One of the most important manipulations one would like to do with path integrals is taking their asymptotic expansions; in the case of the heat kernel, this is the short time asymptotic expansion. In order to use time-slicing approximation here, one needs the approximation to be uniform in the time parameter. We show that this is possible by giving strong error estimates.
Finally, we apply these results to obtain short time asymptotic expansions of the heat kernel also in degenerate cases (i.e. at the cut locus). Furthermore, our results allow to relate the asymptotic expansion of the heat kernel to a formal asymptotic expansion of the infinite-dimensional path integral, which gives relations between geometric quantities on the manifold and on the loop space. In particular, we show that the lowest order term in the asymptotic expansion of the heat kernel is essentially given by the Fredholm determinant of the Hessian of the energy functional. We also investigate how this relates to the zeta-regularized determinant of the Jacobi operator along minimizing geodesics.

In many statistical applications, the aim is to model the relationship between covariates and some outcomes. A choice of the appropriate model depends on the outcome and the research objectives, such as linear models for continuous outcomes, logistic models for binary outcomes and the Cox model for time-to-event data. In epidemiological, medical, biological, societal and economic studies, the logistic regression is widely used to describe the relationship between a response variable as binary outcome and explanatory variables as a set of covariates. However, epidemiologic cohort studies are quite expensive regarding data management since following up a large number of individuals takes long time. Therefore, the case-cohort design is applied to reduce cost and time for data collection. The case-cohort sampling collects a small random sample from the entire cohort, which is called subcohort. The advantage of this design is that the covariate and follow-up data are recorded only on the subcohort and all cases (all members of the cohort who develop the event of interest during the follow-up process).
In this thesis, we investigate the estimation in the logistic model for case-cohort design. First, a model with a binary response and a binary covariate is considered. The maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) is described and its asymptotic properties are established. An estimator for the asymptotic variance of the estimator based on the maximum likelihood approach is proposed; this estimator differs slightly from the estimator introduced by Prentice (1986). Simulation results for several proportions of the subcohort show that the proposed estimator gives lower empirical bias and empirical variance than Prentice's estimator.
Then the MLE in the logistic regression with discrete covariate under case-cohort design is studied. Here the approach of the binary covariate model is extended. Proving asymptotic normality of estimators, standard errors for the estimators can be derived. The simulation study demonstrates the estimation procedure of the logistic regression model with a one-dimensional discrete covariate. Simulation results for several proportions of the subcohort and different choices of the underlying parameters indicate that the estimator developed here performs reasonably well. Moreover, the comparison between theoretical values and simulation results of the asymptotic variance of estimator is presented.
Clearly, the logistic regression is sufficient for the binary outcome refers to be available for all subjects and for a fixed time interval. Nevertheless, in practice, the observations in clinical trials are frequently collected for different time periods and subjects may drop out or relapse from other causes during follow-up. Hence, the logistic regression is not appropriate for incomplete follow-up data; for example, an individual drops out of the study before the end of data collection or an individual has not occurred the event of interest for the duration of the study. These observations are called censored observations. The survival analysis is necessary to solve these problems. Moreover, the time to the occurence of the event of interest is taken into account. The Cox model has been widely used in survival analysis, which can effectively handle the censored data. Cox (1972) proposed the model which is focused on the hazard function. The Cox model is assumed to be
λ(t|x) = λ0(t) exp(β^Tx)
where λ0(t) is an unspecified baseline hazard at time t and X is the vector of covariates, β is a p-dimensional vector of coefficient.
In this thesis, the Cox model is considered under the view point of experimental design. The estimability of the parameter β0 in the Cox model, where β0 denotes the true value of β, and the choice of optimal covariates are investigated. We give new representations of the observed information matrix In(β) and extend results for the Cox model of Andersen and Gill (1982). In this way conditions for the estimability of β0 are formulated. Under some regularity conditions, ∑ is the inverse of the asymptotic variance matrix of the MPLE of β0 in the Cox model and then some properties of the asymptotic variance matrix of the MPLE are highlighted. Based on the results of asymptotic estimability, the calculation of local optimal covariates is considered and shown in examples. In a sensitivity analysis, the efficiency of given covariates is calculated. For neighborhoods of the exponential models, the efficiencies have then been found. It is appeared that for fixed parameters β0, the efficiencies do not change very much for different baseline hazard functions. Some proposals for applicable optimal covariates and a calculation procedure for finding optimal covariates are discussed.
Furthermore, the extension of the Cox model where time-dependent coefficient are allowed, is investigated. In this situation, the maximum local partial likelihood estimator for estimating the coefficient function β(·) is described. Based on this estimator, we formulate a new test procedure for testing, whether a one-dimensional coefficient function β(·) has a prespecified parametric form, say β(·; ϑ). The score function derived from the local constant partial likelihood function at d distinct grid points is considered. It is shown that the distribution of the properly standardized quadratic form of this d-dimensional vector under the null hypothesis tends to a Chi-squared distribution. Moreover, the limit statement remains true when replacing the unknown ϑ0 by the MPLE in the hypothetical model and an asymptotic α-test is given by the quantiles or p-values of the limiting Chi-squared distribution. Finally, we propose a bootstrap version of this test. The bootstrap test is only defined for the special case of testing whether the coefficient function is constant. A simulation study illustrates the behavior of the bootstrap test under the null hypothesis and a special alternative. It gives quite good results for the chosen underlying model.
References
P. K. Andersen and R. D. Gill. Cox's regression model for counting processes: a large samplestudy. Ann. Statist., 10(4):1100{1120, 1982.
D. R. Cox. Regression models and life-tables. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B, 34:187{220, 1972.
R. L. Prentice. A case-cohort design for epidemiologic cohort studies and disease prevention trials. Biometrika, 73(1):1{11, 1986.