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We introduce a theoretical framework for performing statistical hypothesis testing simultaneously over a fairly general, possibly uncountably infinite, set of null hypotheses. This extends the standard statistical setting for multiple hypotheses testing, which is restricted to a finite set. This work is motivated by numerous modern applications where the observed signal is modeled by a stochastic process over a continuum. As a measure of type I error, we extend the concept of false discovery rate (FDR) to this setting. The FDR is defined as the average ratio of the measure of two random sets, so that its study presents some challenge and is of some intrinsic mathematical interest. Our main result shows how to use the p-value process to control the FDR at a nominal level, either under arbitrary dependence of p-values, or under the assumption that the finite dimensional distributions of the p-value process have positive correlations of a specific type (weak PRDS). Both cases generalize existing results established in the finite setting, the latter one leading to a less conservative procedure. The interest of this approach is demonstrated in several non-parametric examples: testing the mean/signal in a Gaussian white noise model, testing the intensity of a Poisson process and testing the c.d.f. of i.i.d. random variables. Conceptually, an interesting feature of the setting advocated here is that it focuses directly on the intrinsic hypothesis space associated with a testing model on a random process, without referring to an arbitrary discretization.

For a sequence of Hilbert spaces and continuous linear operators the curvature is defined to be the composition of any two consecutive operators. This is modeled on the de Rham resolution of a connection on a module over an algebra. Of particular interest are those sequences for which the curvature is "small" at each step, e.g., belongs to a fixed operator ideal. In this context we elaborate the theory of Fredholm sequences and show how to introduce the Lefschetz number.

We say that (weak/strong) time duality holds for continuous time quasi-birth-and-death-processes if, starting from a fixed level, the first hitting time of the next upper level and the first hitting time of the next lower level have the same distribution. We present here a criterion for time duality in the case where transitions from one level to another have to pass through a given single state, the so-called bottleneck property. We also prove that a weaker form of reversibility called balanced under permutation is sufficient for the time duality to hold. We then discuss the general case.

We analyze a general class of difference operators containing a multi-well potential and a small parameter. We decouple the wells by introducing certain Dirichlet operators on regions containing only one potential well, and we treat the eigenvalue problem as a small perturbation of these comparison problems. We describe tunneling by a certain interaction matrix similar to the analysis for the Schrödinger operator, and estimate the remainder, which is exponentially small and roughly quadratic compared with the interaction matrix.

In the limit we analyze the generators of families of reversible jump processes in the n-dimensional space associated with a class of symmetric non-local Dirichlet forms and show exponential decay of the eigenfunctions. The exponential rate function is a Finsler distance, given as solution of certain eikonal equation. Fine results are sensitive to the rate functions being twice differentiable or just Lipschitz. Our estimates are similar to the semiclassical Agmon estimates for differential operators of second order. They generalize and strengthen previous results on the lattice.

The authors discuss the use of the discrepancy principle for statistical inverse problems, when the underlying operator is of trace class. Under this assumption the discrepancy principle is well defined, however a plain use of it may occasionally fail and it will yield sub-optimal rates. Therefore, a modification of the discrepancy is introduced, which takes into account both of the above deficiencies. For a variety of linear regularization schemes as well as for conjugate gradient iteration this modification is shown to yield order optimal a priori error bounds under general smoothness assumptions. A posteriori error control is also possible, however at a sub-optimal rate, in general. This study uses and complements previous results for bounded deterministic noise.

We study maximal subsemigroups of the monoid T(X) of all full transformations on the set X = N of natural numbers containing a given subsemigroup W of T(X), where each element of a given set U is a generator of T(X) modulo W. This note continues the study of maximal subsemigroups of the monoid of all full transformations on an infinite set.

We consider the Dirichlet, Neumann and Zaremba problems for harmonic functions in a bounded plane domain with nonsmooth boundary. The boundary curve belongs to one of the following three classes: sectorial curves, logarithmic spirals and spirals of power type. To study the problem we apply a familiar method of Vekua-Muskhelishvili which consists in using a conformal mapping of the unit disk onto the domain to pull back the problem to a boundary problem for harmonic functions in the disk. This latter is reduced in turn to a Toeplitz operator equation on the unit circle with symbol bearing discontinuities of second kind. We develop a constructive invertibility theory for Toeplitz operators and thus derive solvability conditions as well as explicit formulas for solutions.

On completeness of root functions of Sturm-Liouville problems with discontinuous boundary operators
(2012)

We consider a Sturm-Liouville boundary value problem in a bounded domain D of R^n. By this is meant that the differential equation is given by a second order elliptic operator of divergent form in D and the boundary conditions are of Robin type on bD. The first order term of the boundary operator is the oblique derivative whose coefficients bear discontinuities of the first kind. Applying the method of weak perturbation of compact self-adjoint operators and the method of rays of minimal growth, we prove the completeness of root functions related to the boundary value problem in Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces of various types.