### Refine

#### Has Fulltext

- yes (4) (remove)

#### Document Type

- Doctoral Thesis (4) (remove)

#### Keywords

- cosmology (4) (remove)

Kosmologie beschreibt die Entwicklung des Universums als Ganzes. Kosmologische Entdeckungen in Theorie und Praxis haben daher unser modernes wissenschaftliches Weltbild entscheidend geprägt. Die Vermittlung eines modernen Weltbildes durch Unterricht ist ein häufiger Wunsch in der naturwissenschaftlichen Bildungsdiskussion. Dennoch existieren weiterhin Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarfe. Kosmologische Themen finden sich häufig in den Medien und sind gleichzeitig weiter vom Alltag entfernt, so dass sich hier besonders leicht wissenschaftlich inkorrekte Vorstellungen entwickeln können, die zu Problemen im Unterricht führen können.
Das Ziel dieser wissenschaftlichen Arbeit ist es, zu diesem Forschungsgebiet beizutragen und die Voraussetzungen hinsichtlich vorhandener Vorkenntnisse und Präkonzepte in Kosmologie, mit denen Schülerinnen und Schüler in den Unterricht kommen, zu untersuchen und anschließend mit denen anderer Länder zu vergleichen. Dies erfolgt anhand einer qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse eines offenen Fragebogens. Auf dieser Grundlage wird schließlich ein Multiple-Choice Fragebogen entwickelt, angewendet und evaluiert.
Die Ergebnisse zeigen große Wissenslücken im Bereich der Kosmologie auf und geben erste Hinweise auf vorhandene Unterschiede zwischen den Ländern. Es existieren ebenfalls einige teils weit verbreitete wissenschaftlich inkorrekte Vorstellungen wie beispielsweise die Assoziation des Urknalls mit einer Explosion, der Urknall verursacht durch eine Kollision von Teilchen oder größeren Objekten, oder die Vorstellung der Ausdehnung des Universums als neue Entdeckungen und/oder Wissen. Des Weiteren gab nur etwa jeder Fünfte das korrekte Alter des Universums oder die Ausdehnung des Universums als einen der drei Belege der Urknalltheorie an, während fast 40% keinen einzigen Beleg nennen konnten. Für den geschlossenen Fragebogen konnten gute Hinweise für verschiedene Validitätsaspekte herausgearbeitet werden und es existieren erste Hinweise darauf, dass der Fragebogen Wissenszuwachs messen kann und damit wahrscheinlich zur Untersuchung der Wirksamkeit von Lerneinheiten eingesetzt werden kann. Auch ein entsprechendes Modell zur Verständnisentwicklung der Ausdehnung des Universums zeigte sich vielversprechend.
Diese Arbeit liefert insgesamt einen Forschungsbeitrag zum Schülervorwissen und Vorstellungen in der Kosmologie und deren Large Scale Assessment. Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit zukünftiger Forschungen im Bereich von Gruppenvergleichen insbesondere hinsichtlich objektiver Ländervergleiche sowie der Untersuchungen der Wirksamkeit von einzelnen Lerneinheiten als auch Vergleiche verschiedener Lerneinheiten untereinander.

In the current paradigm of cosmology, the formation of large-scale structures is mainly driven by non-radiating dark matter, making up the dominant part of the matter budget of the Universe. Cosmological observations however, rely on the detection of luminous galaxies, which are biased tracers of the underlying dark matter. In this thesis I present cosmological reconstructions of both, the dark matter density field that forms the cosmic web, and cosmic velocities, for which both aspects of my work are delved into, the theoretical formalism and the results of its applications to cosmological simulations and also to a galaxy redshift survey.The foundation of our method is relying on a statistical approach, in which a given galaxy catalogue is interpreted as a biased realization of the underlying dark matter density field. The inference is computationally performed on a mesh grid by sampling from a probability density function, which describes the joint posterior distribution of matter density and the three dimensional velocity field. The statistical background of our method is described in Chapter ”Implementation of argo”, where the introduction in sampling methods is given, paying special attention to Markov Chain Monte-Carlo techniques. In Chapter ”Phase-Space Reconstructions with N-body Simulations”, I introduce and implement a novel biasing scheme to relate the galaxy number density to the underlying dark matter, which I decompose into a deterministic part, described by a non-linear and scale-dependent analytic expression, and a stochastic part, by presenting a negative binomial (NB) likelihood function that models deviations from Poissonity. Both bias components had already been studied theoretically, but were so far never tested in a reconstruction algorithm. I test these new contributions againstN-body simulations to quantify improvements and show that, compared to state-of-the-art methods, the stochastic bias is inevitable at wave numbers of k≥0.15h Mpc^−1 in the power spectrum in order to obtain unbiased results from the reconstructions. In the second part of Chapter ”Phase-Space Reconstructions with N-body Simulations” I describe and validate our approach to infer the three dimensional cosmic velocity field jointly with the dark matter density. I use linear perturbation theory for the large-scale bulk flows and a dispersion term to model virialized galaxy motions, showing that our method is accurately recovering the real-space positions of the redshift-space distorted galaxies. I analyze the results with the isotropic and also the two-dimensional power spectrum.Finally, in Chapter ”Phase-space Reconstructions with Galaxy Redshift Surveys”, I show how I combine all findings and results and apply the method to the CMASS (for Constant (stellar) Mass) galaxy catalogue of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). I describe how our method is accounting for the observational selection effects inside our reconstruction algorithm. Also, I demonstrate that the renormalization of the prior distribution function is mandatory to account for higher order contributions in the structure formation model, and finally a redshift-dependent bias factor is theoretically motivated and implemented into our method. The various refinements yield unbiased results of the dark matter until scales of k≤0.2 h Mpc^−1in the power spectrum and isotropize the galaxy catalogue down to distances of r∼20h^−1 Mpc in the correlation function. We further test the results of our cosmic velocity field reconstruction by comparing them to a synthetic mock galaxy catalogue, finding a strong correlation between the mock and the reconstructed velocities. The applications of both, the density field without redshift-space distortions, and the velocity reconstructions, are very broad and can be used for improved analyses of the baryonic acoustic oscillations, environmental studies of the cosmic web, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel’dovic or integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect.

The Epoch of Reionization marks after recombination the second major change in the ionization state of the universe, going from a neutral to an ionized state. It starts with the appearance of the first stars and galaxies; a fraction of high-energy photons emitted from galaxies permeate into the intergalactic medium (IGM) and gradually ionize the hydrogen, until the IGM is completely ionized at z~6 (Fan et al., 2006). While the progress of reionization is driven by galaxy evolution, it changes the ionization and thermal state of the IGM substantially and affects subsequent structure and galaxy formation by various feedback mechanisms.
Understanding this interaction between reionization and galaxy formation is further impeded by a lack of understanding of the high-redshift galactic properties such as the dust distribution and the escape fraction of ionizing photons. Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) represent a sample of high-redshift galaxies that are sensitive to all these galactic properties and the effects of reionization.
In this thesis we aim to understand the progress of reionization by performing cosmological simulations, which allows us to investigate the limits of constraining reionization by high-redshift galaxies as LAEs, and examine how galactic properties and the ionization state of the IGM affect the visibility and observed quantities of LAEs and Lyman Break galaxies (LBGs).
In the first part of this thesis we focus on performing radiative transfer calculations to simulate reionization. We have developed a mapping-sphere-scheme, which, starting from spherically averaged temperature and density fields, uses our 1D radiative transfer code and computes the effect of each source on the IGM temperature and ionization (HII, HeII, HeIII) profiles, which are subsequently mapped onto a grid. Furthermore we have updated the 3D Monte-Carlo radiative transfer pCRASH, enabling detailed reionization simulations which take individual source characteristics into account.
In the second part of this thesis we perform a reionization simulation by post-processing a smoothed-particle hydrodynamical (SPH) simulation (GADGET-2) with 3D radiative transfer (pCRASH), where the ionizing sources are modelled according to the characteristics of the stellar populations in the hydrodynamical simulation. Following the ionization fractions of hydrogen (HI) and helium (HeII, HeIII), and temperature in our simulation, we find that reionization starts at z~11 and ends at z~6, and high density regions near sources are ionized earlier than low density regions far from sources.
In the third part of this thesis we couple the cosmological SPH simulation and the radiative transfer simulations with a physically motivated, self-consistent model for LAEs, in order to understand the importance of the ionization state of the IGM, the escape fraction of ionizing photons from galaxies and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) on the visibility of LAEs. Comparison of our models results with the LAE Lyman Alpha (Lya) and UV luminosity functions at z~6.6 reveals a three-dimensional degeneracy between the ionization state of the IGM, the ionizing photons escape fraction and the ISM dust distribution, which implies that LAEs act not only as tracers of reionization but also of the ionizing photon escape fraction and of the ISM dust distribution. This degeneracy does not even break down when we compare simulated with observed clustering of LAEs at z~6.6. However, our results show that reionization has the largest impact on the amplitude of the LAE angular correlation functions, and its imprints are clearly distinguishable from those of properties on galactic scales. These results show that reionization cannot be constrained tightly by exclusively using LAE observations. Further observational constraints, e.g. tomographies of the redshifted hydrogen 21cm line, are required.
In addition we also use our LAE model to probe the question when a galaxy is visible as a LAE or a LBG. Within our model galaxies above a critical stellar mass can produce enough luminosity to be visible as a LBG and/or a LAE. By finding an increasing duty cycle of LBGs with Lya emission as the UV magnitude or stellar mass of the galaxy rises, our model reveals that the brightest (and most massive) LBGs most often show Lya emission.
Predicting the Lya equivalent width (Lya EW) distribution and the fraction of LBGs showing Lya emission at z~6.6, we reproduce the observational trend of the Lya EWs with UV magnitude. However, the Lya EWs of the UV brightest LBGs exceed observations and can only be reconciled by accounting for an increased Lya attenuation of massive galaxies, which implies that the observed Lya brightest LAEs do not necessarily coincide with the UV brightest galaxies. We have analysed the dependencies of LAE observables on the properties of the galactic and intergalactic medium and the LAE-LBG connection, and this enhances our understanding of the nature of LAEs.

In the context of cosmological structure formation sheets, filaments and eventually halos form due to gravitational instabilities. It is noteworthy, that at all times, the majority of the baryons in the universe does not reside in the dense halos but in the filaments and the sheets of the intergalactic medium. While at higher redshifts of z > 2, these baryons can be detected via the absorption of light (originating from more distant sources) by neutral hydrogen at temperatures of T ~ 10^4 K (the Lyman-alpha forest), at lower redshifts only about 20 % can be found in this state. The remain (about 50 to 70 % of the total baryons mass) is unaccounted for by observational means. Numerical simulations predict that these missing baryons could reside in the filaments and sheets of the cosmic web at high temperatures of T = 10^4.5 - 10^7 K, but only at low to intermediate densities, and constitutes the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). The high temperatures of the WHIM are caused by the formation of shocks and the subsequent shock-heating of the gas. This results in a high degree of ionization and renders the reliable detection of the WHIM a challenging task. Recent high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations indicate that, at redshifts of z ~ 2, filaments are able to provide very massive galaxies with a significant amount of cool gas at temperatures of T ~ 10^4 K. This could have an important impact on the star-formation in those galaxies. It is therefore of principle importance to investigate the particular hydro- and thermodynamical conditions of these large filament structures. Density and temperature profiles, and velocity fields, are expected to leave their special imprint on spectroscopic observations. A potential multiphase structure may act as tracer in observational studies of the WHIM. In the context of cold streams, it is important to explore the processes, which regulate the amount of gas transported by the streams. This includes the time evolution of filaments, as well as possible quenching mechanisms. In this context, the halo mass range in which cold stream accretion occurs is of particular interest. In order to address these questions, we perform particular hydrodynamical simulations of very high resolution, and investigate the formation and evolution of prototype structures representing the typical filaments and sheets of the WHIM. We start with a comprehensive study of the one-dimensional collapse of a sinusoidal density perturbation (pancake formation) and examine the influence of radiative cooling, heating due to an UV background, thermal conduction, and the effect of small-scale perturbations given by the cosmological power spectrum. We use a set of simulations, parametrized by the wave length of the initial perturbation L. For L ~ 2 Mpc/h the collapse leads to shock-confined structures. As a result of radiative cooling and of heating due to an UV background, a relatively cold and dense core forms. With increasing L the core becomes denser and more concentrated. Thermal conduction enhances this trend and may lead to an evaporation of the core at very large L ~ 30 Mpc/h. When extending our simulations into three dimensions, instead of a pancake structure, we obtain a configuration consisting of well-defined sheets, filaments, and a gaseous halo. For L > 4 Mpc/h filaments form, which are fully confined by an accretion shock. As with the one-dimensional pancakes, they exhibit an isothermal core. Thus, our results confirm a multiphase structure, which may generate particular spectral tracers. We find that, after its formation, the core becomes shielded against further infall of gas onto the filament, and its mass content decreases with time. In the vicinity of the halo, the filament's core can be attributed to the cold streams found in other studies. We show, that the basic structure of these cold streams exists from the very beginning of the collapse process. Further on, the cross section of the streams is constricted by the outwards moving accretion shock of the halo. Thermal conduction leads to a complete evaporation of the cold stream for L > 6 Mpc/h. This corresponds to halos with a total mass higher than M_halo = 10^13 M_sun, and predicts that in more massive halos star-formation can not be sustained by cold streams. Far away from the gaseous halo, the temperature gradients in the filament are not sufficiently strong for thermal conduction to be effective.