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Geometric electroelasticity
(2014)

In this work a diffential geometric formulation of the theory of electroelasticity is developed which also includes thermal and magnetic influences. We study the motion of bodies consisting of an elastic material that are deformed by the influence of mechanical forces, heat and an external electromagnetic field. To this end physical balance laws (conservation of mass, balance of momentum, angular momentum and energy) are established. These provide an equation that describes the motion of the body during the deformation. Here the body and the surrounding space are modeled as Riemannian manifolds, and we allow that the body has a lower dimension than the surrounding space. In this way one is not (as usual) restricted to the description of the deformation of three-dimensional bodies in a three-dimensional space, but one can also describe the deformation of membranes and the deformation in a curved space. Moreover, we formulate so-called constitutive relations that encode the properties of the used material. Balance of energy as a scalar law can easily be formulated on a Riemannian manifold. The remaining balance laws are then obtained by demanding that balance of energy is invariant under the action of arbitrary diffeomorphisms on the surrounding space. This generalizes a result by Marsden and Hughes that pertains to bodies that have the same dimension as the surrounding space and does not allow the presence of electromagnetic fields. Usually, in works on electroelasticity the entropy inequality is used to decide which otherwise allowed deformations are physically admissible and which are not. It is alsoemployed to derive restrictions to the possible forms of constitutive relations describing the material. Unfortunately, the opinions on the physically correct statement of the entropy inequality diverge when electromagnetic fields are present. Moreover, it is unclear how to formulate the entropy inequality in the case of a membrane that is subjected to an electromagnetic field. Thus, we show that one can replace the use of the entropy inequality by the demand that for a given process balance of energy is invariant under the action of arbitrary diffeomorphisms on the surrounding space and under linear rescalings of the temperature. On the one hand, this demand also yields the desired restrictions to the form of the constitutive relations. On the other hand, it needs much weaker assumptions than the arguments in physics literature that are employing the entropy inequality. Again, our result generalizes a theorem of Marsden and Hughes. This time, our result is, like theirs, only valid for bodies that have the same dimension as the surrounding space.