Is part of the Bibliography
Native language affects rhythmic grouping of speech
- Perceptual attunement to one's native language results in language-specific processing of speech sounds. This includes stress cues, instantiated by differences in intensity, pitch, and duration. The present study investigates the effects of linguistic experience on the perception of these cues by studying the Iambic-Trochaic Law (ITL), which states that listeners group sounds trochaically (strong-weak) if the sounds vary in loudness or pitch and iambically (weak-strong) if they vary in duration. Participants were native listeners either of French or German; this comparison was chosen because French adults have been shown to be less sensitive than speakers of German and other languages to word-level stress, which is communicated by variation in cues such as intensity, fundamental frequency (F0), or duration. In experiment 1, participants listened to sequences of co-articulated syllables varying in either intensity or duration. The German participants were more consistent in their grouping than the French for both cues. Experiment 2 was identical to experiment 1 except that intensity variation was replaced by pitch variation. German participants again showed more consistency for both cues, and French participants showed especially inconsistent grouping for the pitch-varied sequences. These experiments show that the perception of linguistic rhythm is strongly influenced by linguistic experience.
Inter-speaker articulatory variability during vowel-consonant-vowel sequences in twins and unrelated speakers
- The purpose of this study is to examine and compare the amount of inter-speaker variability in the articulation of monozygotic twin pairs (MZ), dizygotic twin pairs (DZ), and pairs of unrelated twins with the goal of examining in greater depth the influence of physiology on articulation. Physiological parameters are assumed to be very similar in MZ twin pairs in contrast to DZ twin pairs or unrelated speakers, and it is hypothesized that the speaker specific shape of articulatory looping trajectories of the tongue is at least partly dependent on biomechanical properties and the speaker's individual physiology. By means of electromagnetic articulography (EMA), inter-speaker variability in the looping trajectories of the tongue back during /VCV/ sequences is analyzed. Results reveal similar looping patterns within MZ twin pairs but in DZ pairs differences in the shape of the loop, the direction of the upward and downward movement, and the amount of horizontal sliding movement at the palate are found.
Effects of telmisartan and linagliptin when used in combination on blood pressure and oxidative stress in rats with 2-kidney-1-clip hypertension
Markus L. Alter
Karoline von Websky
- Objective:To investigate the effects of linagliptin alone and in combination with the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), telmisartan on blood pressure (BP), kidney function, heart morphology and oxidative stress in rats with renovascular hypertension.Methods:Fifty-seven male Wistar rats underwent unilateral surgical stenosis of the renal artery [2-kidney-1-clip (2k1c) method]. Animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n=14-18 per group) receiving: telmisartan (10mg/kg per day in drinking water), linagliptin (89ppm in chow), combination (linagliptin 89ppm+telmisartan 10mg/kg per day) or placebo. An additional group of 12 rats underwent sham surgery. BP was measured one week after surgery. Hypertensive animals entered a 16-week dosing period. BP was measured 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after the initiation of treatment. Blood and urine were tested for assessment of kidney function and oxidative stress 6, 10, 14 and 18 weeks after surgery. Blood and urine sampling and organ harvesting were finally performed.Results:Renal stenosis caused an increase in meanSD systolic BP as compared with the sham group (157.7 +/- 29.3 vs. 106.2 +/- 20.5mmHg, respectively; P<0.001). Telmisartan alone and in combination with linagliptin, normalized SBP (111.1 +/- 24.3mmHg and 100.4 +/- 13.9mmHg, respectively; P<0.001 vs. placebo). Telmisartan alone and in combination with linagliptin significantly prevented cardiac hypertrophy, measured by heart weight and myocyte diameter. Renal function measured by cystatin C was not affected by 2k1c surgery. Telmisartan significantly increased plasma concentration of cystatin C. 2k1c surgery initiated fibrosis in both kidneys. Telmisartan promoted further fibrotic changes in the clipped kidney, as measured by protein expression of Col1a1 and histology for interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. In non-clipped kidneys, telmisartan demonstrated antifibrotic properties, reducing Col1a1 protein expression. Plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein were higher in the placebo-treated 2k1c rats as compared to sham-operated animals. The increase was abolished by linagliptin alone (P=0.03 vs. placebo) and in combination with telmisartan (P=0.02 vs. placebo). Combination therapy also significantly reduced plasma concentration of carbonyl proteins (P=0.04 vs. placebo).Conclusion:Inhibition of type 4 dipeptidyl peptidase with linagliptin did not counter BP-lowering effects of ARB in 2k1c rats. Linagliptin reduced lipid and protein oxidation in 2k1c rats, and this effect was BP-independent.
Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation
Cecilia De Biase
Sascha E. Oswald
- Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile losses to the atmosphere. Especially for (potentially) toxic VOCs, the latter needs to be minimized to limit atmospheric emissions. In this study, numerical simulation was used to investigate quantitatively the removal of volatile organic compounds in two pilot-scale water treatment systems: an unplanted vertical flow filter and a planted one, which could also be called a vertical flow constructed wetland, both used for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. These systems were intermittently loaded with contaminated water containing benzene and MTBE as main VOCs. The highly dynamic but permanently unsaturated conditions in the porous medium facilitated aerobic biodegradation but could lead to volatile emissions of the contaminants. Experimental data from porous material analyses, flow rate measurements, solute tracer and gas tracer test, as well as contaminant concentration measurements at the boundaries of the systems were used to constrain a numerical reactive transport modeling approach. Numerical simulations considered unsaturated water flow, transport of species in the aqueous and the gas phase as well as aerobic degradation processes, which made it possible to quantify the rates of biodegradation and volatile emissions and calculating their contribution to total contaminant removal. A range of degradation rates was determined using experimental results of both systems under two operation modes and validated by field data obtained at different operation modes applied to the filters. For both filters, simulations and experimental data point to high biodegradation rates, if the flow filters have had time to build up their removal capacity. For this case volatile emissions are negligible and total removal can be attributed to biodegradation, only. The simulation study thus supports the use of both of these vertical flow systems for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with VOCs and the use of reactive transport modeling for the assessment of VOCs removal and operation modes in these high performance treatment systems.
Seismic characterization of the Chelyabinsk Meteor's terminal explosion
The PRO-wh connection in modal existential wh-constructions an argument in favor of semantic control
- Recent discussion of obligatory control in the literature mostly concentrates on the issue of which syntactic module (movement, agreement, etc.) is responsible for the establishment of the control relation. This paper looks at the issue of control from a higher order perspective. Abandoning the presupposition that control constituents denote propositions and that, therefore, control must be syntactic, I deliver an argument in favor of the property-type analysis of control constituents and, by transitivity, for a semantic resolution of the control relation. The argument comes from modal existential wh-constructions and in particular from a strong parallelism between obligatorily controlled PRO and wh-expressions. It is revealed that PRO and wh-words form a natural class, to the exclusion of all other types of nominal expressions. This is then turned into an argument of treating PRO (and wh-words) essentially as a logical lambda-operator, naturally leading to the property theory of control. In addition, the article contributes to our understanding of the syntax, semantics, and typology of modal existential wh-constructions. It is argued that at least one type of these constructions, what I call "control MECs", is embedded (minimally) by a complex predicate BE+FOR which expresses the state of availability (BE) which makes it possible for someone to profit (FOR) from the event characterized by the modal existential wh-construction.
Niches drive peaked and positive relationships between diversity and disturbance in natural ecosystems
Andrew J. Tanentzap
William G. Lee
Katharina A. C. Schulz
- A unified understanding of the relationship between disturbance and biodiversity is needed to predict biotic responses to global change. Recent advances have identified the need to deconstruct traditional models of disturbance into intensity and frequency to reconcile empirical studies that appear to generate contradictory associations between species diversity and disturbance. We integrate results from theoretical simulation modelling, field-based surveys of 5176 vegetation plots from 48 transects across 6 sites, and experimental pot-based manipulations of flooding to identify how disturbance drives species diversity within ephemeral wetlands in South Island, New Zealand. We find empirical, hump-shaped and positive relationships between species diversity and both disturbance intensity and frequency, mirroring patterns from a simulation model in which species differed in their demographic responses to disturbance. More generally, our simulations show that the relationships between diversity and disturbance shift from positive to hump-shaped to negative as species that are favored at low disturbance because of their resistance strategies, defined by low mortality and recruitment, decline within communities relative to resilient species. Resilient species with higher mortality and recruitment rates are instead favored as disturbance intensity and frequency intensify. Our theoretical findings suggest that sites must also have a third group of unique species with intermediate resilience and resistance. Analyses of community composition along our disturbance gradients support this prediction, emphasizing that shifts in community-level resistance and resilience drive empirical associations between diversity and disturbance. Overall, terrestrial plants may be unable to resist intense and frequent flooding, even with specialized traits. Only fast-growing species with high regeneration from seed may respond once flooding subsides and dominate community composition in these situations, especially on nutrient-rich soils. However, different strategies can co-occur at intermediate disturbance, ultimately increasing species richness. As disturbances become more pervasive globally, our results suggest that differences in the niches of species, rather than demographic stochasticity, drive biodiversity patterns. These niche-based processes may especially prevail, without accompanying losses in species richness, where sites are initially dominated by resistant taxa or life history strategies that balance resistance and resilience.
A regime shift from macrophyte to phytoplankton dominance enhances carbon burial in a shallow, eutrophic lake
Soren M. Brothers
Hans Peter Grossart
- Ecological regime shifts and carbon cycling in aquatic systems have both been subject to increasing attention in recent years, yet the direct connection between these topics has remained poorly understood. A four-fold increase in sedimentation rates was observed within the past 50 years in a shallow eutrophic lake with no surface in-or outflows. This change coincided with an ecological regime shift involving the complete loss of submerged macrophytes, leading to a more turbid, phytoplankton-dominated state. To determine whether the increase in carbon (C) burial resulted from a comprehensive transformation of C cycling pathways in parallel to this regime shift, we compared the annual C balances (mass balance and ecosystem budget) of this turbid lake to a similar nearby lake with submerged macrophytes, a higher transparency, and similar nutrient concentrations. C balances indicated that roughly 80% of the C input was permanently buried in the turbid lake sediments, compared to 40% in the clearer macrophyte-dominated lake. This was due to a higher measured C burial efficiency in the turbid lake, which could be explained by lower benthic C mineralization rates. These lower mineralization rates were associated with a decrease in benthic oxygen availability coinciding with the loss of submerged macrophytes. In contrast to previous assumptions that a regime shift to phytoplankton dominance decreases lake heterotrophy by boosting whole-lake primary production, our results suggest that an equivalent net metabolic shift may also result from lower C mineralization rates in a shallow, turbid lake. The widespread occurrence of such shifts may thus fundamentally alter the role of shallow lakes in the global C cycle, away from channeling terrestrial C to the atmosphere and towards burying an increasing amount of C.
Variability Management beyond Feature Models
- When new customer and regulatory requirements arise, the ability to quickly adapt business information system processes is crucial to stay ahead of competitors. A proposed synthesis-based framework enables the development of business processes that automatically yield fully executable variants.
ITSy-simplicity research in information and communication technology
Barry D. Floyd
- Basic to information and communication technology design, simplicity as a driving concept receives little formal attention from the ICT community. A recent literature review and survey of scholars, researchers, and practitioners conducted through the Information Technology Simply Works (ITSy) European Support Action reveals key findings about current perceptions of and future directions for simplicity in ICT.