## 530 Physik

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We present electrical impedance measurements of amoeboid cells on microelectrodes. The model organism Dictyostelium discoideum shows under starvation conditions a transition to collective behavior when chemotactic cells collect in multicellular aggregates. We show how impedance recordings give a precise picture of the stages of aggregation by tracing the dynamics of cell-substrate adhesion. Furthermore, we present for the first time systematic single cell measurements of wild type cells and four mutant strains that differ in their substrate adhesion strength. We recorded the projected cell area by time lapse microscopy and found a correlation between quasi-periodic oscillations in the kinetics of the projected area - the cell shape oscillation - and the long-term trend in the impedance signal. Typically, amoeboid motility advances via a cycle of membrane protrusion, substrate adhesion, traction of the cell body and tail retraction. This motility cycle results in the quasi-periodic oscillations of the projected cell area and the impedance. In all cell lines measured, similar periods were observed for this cycle, despite the differences in attachment strength. We observed that cell-substrate attachment strength strongly affects the impedance in that the deviations from mean (the magnitude of fluctuations) are enhanced in cells that effectively transmit forces, generated by the cytoskeleton, to the substrate. For example, in talA- cells, which lack the actin anchoring protein talin, the fluctuations are strongly reduced. Single cell force spectroscopy and results from a detachment assay, where adhesion is measured by exposing cells to shear stress, confirm that the magnitude of impedance fluctuations is a correct measure for the strength of substrate adhesion. Finally, we also worked on the integration of cell-substrate impedance sensors into microfluidic devices. A chip-based electrical chemotaxis assay is designed which measures the speed of chemotactic cells migrating over microelectrodes along a chemical concentration gradient.

Proteins are molecules that are essential for life and carry out an enormous number of functions in organisms. To this end, they change their conformation and bind to other molecules. However, the interplay between conformational change and binding is not fully understood. In this work, this interplay is investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the protein-peptide system Mdm2-PMI and by analysis of data from relaxation experiments.
The central task it to uncover the binding mechanism, which is described by the sequence of (partial) binding events and conformational change events including their probabilities. In the simplest case, the binding mechanism is described by a two-step model: binding followed by conformational change or conformational change followed by binding. In the general case, longer sequences with multiple conformational changes and partial binding events are possible as well as parallel pathways that differ in their sequences of events. The theory of Markov state models (MSMs) provides the theoretical framework in which all these cases can be modeled. For this purpose, MSMs are estimated in this work from MD data, and rate equation models, which are related to MSMs, are inferred from experimental relaxation data.
The MD simulation and Markov modeling of the PMI-Mdm2 system shows that PMI and Mdm2 can bind via multiple pathways. A main result of this work is a dissociation rate on the order of one event per second, which was calculated using Markov modeling and is in agreement with experiment. So far, dissociation rates and transition rates of this magnitude have only been calculated with methods that speed up transitions by acting with time-dependent, external forces on the binding partners. The simulation technique developed in this work, in contrast, allows the estimation of dissociation rates from the combination of free energy calculation and direct MD simulation of the fast binding process. Two new statistical estimators TRAM and TRAMMBAR are developed to estimate a MSM from the joint data of both simulation types.
In addition, a new analysis technique for time-series data from chemical relaxation experiments is developed in this work. It allows to identify one of the above-mentioned two-step mechanisms as the mechanism that underlays the data. The new method is valid for a broader range of concentrations than previous methods and therefore allows to choose the concentrations such that the mechanism can be uniquely identified. It is successfully tested with data for the binding of recoverin to a rhodopsin kinase peptide.

Approaching physical limits in speed and size of today's magnetic storage and processing technologies demands new concepts for controlling magnetization and moves researches on optically induced magnetic dynamics. Studies on photoinduced magnetization dynamics and their underlying mechanisms have been primarily performed on ferromagnetic metals. Ferromagnetic dynamics bases on transfer of the conserved angular momentum connected with atomic magnetic moments out of the parallel aligned magnetic system into other degrees of freedom.
In this thesis the so far rarely studied response of antiferromagnetic order to ultra-short optical laser pulses in a metal is investigated. The experiments were performed at the FemtoSpex slicing facility at the storage ring BESSY II, an unique source for ultra-short elliptically polarized x-ray pulses. Laser-induced changes of the 4f-magnetic order parameter in ferro- and antiferromagnetic dysprosium (Dy), were studied by x-ray methods, which yield directly comparable quantities. The discovered fundamental differences in the temporal and spatial behavior of ferro- and antiferrmagnetic dynamics are assinged to an additional channel for angular momentum transfer, which reduces the antiferromagnetic order by redistributing angular momentum within the non-parallel aligned magnetic system, and hence conserves the zero net magnetization. It is shown that antiferromagnetic dynamics proceeds considerably faster and more energy-efficient than demagnetization in ferromagnets. By probing antiferromagnetic order in time and space, it is found to be affected along the whole sample depth of an in situ grown 73 nm tick Dy film. Interatomic transfer of angular momentum via fast diffusion of laser-excited 5d electrons is held responsible for the out-most long-ranging effect. Ultrafast ferromagnetic dynamics can be expected to base on the same origin, which however leads to demagnetization only in regions close to interfaces caused by super-diffusive spin transport. Dynamics due to local scattering processes of excited but less mobile electrons, occur in both magnetic alignments only in directly excited regions of the sample and on slower pisosecond timescales. The thesis provides fundamental insights into photoinduced magnetic dynamics by directly comparing ferro- and antiferromagnetic dynamics in the same material and by consideration of the laser-induced magnetic depth profile.

The goal of this thesis is related to the question how to introduce and combine simultaneously plasmonic and photoswitching properties to different nano-objects. In this thesis I investigate the complexes between noble metal nanoparticles and cationic surfactants containing azobenzene units in their hydrophobic tail, employing absorption spectroscopy, surface zeta-potential, and electron microscopy.
In the first part of the thesis, the formation of complexes between negatively charged laser ablated spherical gold nanoparticles and cationic azobenzene surfactants in trans- conformation is explored. It is shown that the constitution of the complexes strongly depends on a surfactant-to-gold molar ratio. At certain molar ratios, particle self-assembly into nanochains and their aggregation have been registered. At higher surfactant concentrations, the surface charge of nanoparticles turned positive, attributed to the formation of the stabilizing double layer of azobenzene surfactants on gold nanoparticle surfaces. These gold-surfactant complexes remained colloidally stable. UV light induced trans-cis isomerization of azobenzene surfactant molecules and thus perturbed the stabilizing surfactant shell, causing nanoparticle aggregation. The results obtained with silver and silicon nanoparticles mimick those for the comprehensively studied gold nanoparticles, corroborating the proposed model of complex formation.
In the second part, the interaction between plasmonic metal nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Pd, alloy Au-Ag, Au-Pd), as well as silicon nanoparticles, and cis-isomers of azobenzene containing compounds is addressed. Cis-trans thermal isomerization of azobenzenes was enhanced in the presence of gold, palladium, and alloy gold-palladium nanoparticles. The influence of the surfactant structure and nanoparticle material on the azobenzene isomerization rate is expounded. Gold nanoparticles showed superior catalytic activity for thermal cis-trans isomerization of azobenzenes. In a joint project with theoretical chemists, we demonstrated that the possible physical origin of this phenomenon is the electron transfer between azobenzene moieties and nanoparticle surfaces.
In the third part, complexes between gold nanorods and azobenzene surfactants with different tail length were exposed to UV and blue light, inducing trans-cis and cis-trans isomerization of surfactant, respectively. At the same time, the position of longitudinal plasmonic absorption maximum of gold nanorods experienced reversible shift responding to the changes in local dielectric environment. Surface plasmon resonance condition allowed the estimation of the refractive index of azobenzene containing surfactants in solution.

Fixational eye movements show scaling behaviour of the positional mean-squared displacement with a characteristic transition from persistence to antipersistence for increasing time-lag. These statistical patterns were found to be mainly shaped by microsaccades (fast, small-amplitude movements). However, our re-analysis of fixational eye-movement data provides evidence that the slow component (physiological drift) of the eyes exhibits scaling behaviour of the mean-squared displacement that varies across human participants. These results suggest that drift is a correlated movement that interacts with microsaccades. Moreover, on the long time scale, the mean-squared displacement of the drift shows oscillations, which is also present in the displacement auto-correlation function. This finding lends support to the presence of time-delayed feedback in the control of drift movements. Based on an earlier non-linear delayed feedback model of fixational eye movements, we propose and discuss different versions of a new model that combines a self-avoiding walk with time delay. As a result, we identify a model that reproduces oscillatory correlation functions, the transition from persistence to antipersistence, and microsaccades.

Effects of the target aspect ratio and intrinsic reactivity onto diffusive search in bounded domains
(2017)

We study the mean first passage time (MFPT) to a reaction event on a specific site in a cylindrical geometry—characteristic, for instance, for bacterial cells, with a concentric inner cylinder representing the nuclear region of the bacterial cell. Asimilar problem emerges in the description of a diffusive search by a transcription factor protein for a specific binding region on a single strand of DNA.We develop a unified theoretical approach to study the underlying boundary value problem which is based on a self-consistent approximation of the mixed boundary condition. Our approach permits us to derive explicit, novel, closed-form expressions for the MFPT valid for a generic setting with an arbitrary relation between the system parameters.Weanalyse this general result in the asymptotic limits appropriate for the above-mentioned biophysical problems. Our investigation reveals the crucial role of the target aspect ratio and of the intrinsic reactivity of the binding region, which were disregarded in previous studies. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations.

Effects of the target aspect ratio and intrinsic reactivity onto diffusive search in bounded domains
(2017)

Westudy the mean first passage time (MFPT) to a reaction event on a specific site in a cylindrical geometry—characteristic, for instance, for bacterial cells, with a concentric inner cylinder representing the nuclear region of the bacterial cell. Asimilar problem emerges in the description of a diffusive search by a transcription factor protein for a specific binding region on a single strand of DNA.We develop a unified theoretical approach to study the underlying boundary value problem which is based on a self-consistent approximation of the mixed boundary condition. Our approach permits us to derive explicit, novel, closed-form expressions for the MFPT valid for a generic setting with an arbitrary relation between the system parameters.Weanalyse this general result in the asymptotic limits appropriate for the above-mentioned biophysical problems. Our investigation reveals the crucial role of the target aspect ratio and of the intrinsic reactivity of the binding region, which were disregarded in previous studies. Theoretical predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations.

In the current paradigm of cosmology, the formation of large-scale structures is mainly driven by non-radiating dark matter, making up the dominant part of the matter budget of the Universe. Cosmological observations however, rely on the detection of luminous galaxies, which are biased tracers of the underlying dark matter. In this thesis I present cosmological reconstructions of both, the dark matter density field that forms the cosmic web, and cosmic velocities, for which both aspects of my work are delved into, the theoretical formalism and the results of its applications to cosmological simulations and also to a galaxy redshift survey.The foundation of our method is relying on a statistical approach, in which a given galaxy catalogue is interpreted as a biased realization of the underlying dark matter density field. The inference is computationally performed on a mesh grid by sampling from a probability density function, which describes the joint posterior distribution of matter density and the three dimensional velocity field. The statistical background of our method is described in Chapter ”Implementation of argo”, where the introduction in sampling methods is given, paying special attention to Markov Chain Monte-Carlo techniques. In Chapter ”Phase-Space Reconstructions with N-body Simulations”, I introduce and implement a novel biasing scheme to relate the galaxy number density to the underlying dark matter, which I decompose into a deterministic part, described by a non-linear and scale-dependent analytic expression, and a stochastic part, by presenting a negative binomial (NB) likelihood function that models deviations from Poissonity. Both bias components had already been studied theoretically, but were so far never tested in a reconstruction algorithm. I test these new contributions againstN-body simulations to quantify improvements and show that, compared to state-of-the-art methods, the stochastic bias is inevitable at wave numbers of k≥0.15h Mpc^−1 in the power spectrum in order to obtain unbiased results from the reconstructions. In the second part of Chapter ”Phase-Space Reconstructions with N-body Simulations” I describe and validate our approach to infer the three dimensional cosmic velocity field jointly with the dark matter density. I use linear perturbation theory for the large-scale bulk flows and a dispersion term to model virialized galaxy motions, showing that our method is accurately recovering the real-space positions of the redshift-space distorted galaxies. I analyze the results with the isotropic and also the two-dimensional power spectrum.Finally, in Chapter ”Phase-space Reconstructions with Galaxy Redshift Surveys”, I show how I combine all findings and results and apply the method to the CMASS (for Constant (stellar) Mass) galaxy catalogue of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). I describe how our method is accounting for the observational selection effects inside our reconstruction algorithm. Also, I demonstrate that the renormalization of the prior distribution function is mandatory to account for higher order contributions in the structure formation model, and finally a redshift-dependent bias factor is theoretically motivated and implemented into our method. The various refinements yield unbiased results of the dark matter until scales of k≤0.2 h Mpc^−1in the power spectrum and isotropize the galaxy catalogue down to distances of r∼20h^−1 Mpc in the correlation function. We further test the results of our cosmic velocity field reconstruction by comparing them to a synthetic mock galaxy catalogue, finding a strong correlation between the mock and the reconstructed velocities. The applications of both, the density field without redshift-space distortions, and the velocity reconstructions, are very broad and can be used for improved analyses of the baryonic acoustic oscillations, environmental studies of the cosmic web, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel’dovic or integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect.