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The supercritical Hopf bifurcation is one of the simplest ways in which a stationary state of a nonlinear system can undergo a transition to stable self-sustained oscillations. At the bifurcation point, a small-amplitude limit cycle is born, which already at onset displays a finite frequency. If we consider a reaction-diffusion system that undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, its dynamics is described by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE). Here, we study such a system in the parameter regime where the CGLE shows spatio-temporal chaos. We review a type of time-delay feedback methods which is suitable to suppress chaos and replace it by other spatio-temporal solutions such as uniform oscillations, plane waves, standing waves, and the stationary state.

In the present study, the charge distribution and the charge transport across the thickness of 2- and 3-dimensional polymer nanodielectrics was investigated. Chemically surface-treated polypropylene (PP) films and low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films with 3 wt % of magnesium oxide (LDPE/MgO) served as examples of 2-D and 3-D nanodielectrics, respectively. Surface charges were deposited onto the non-metallized surfaces of the one-side metallized polymer films and found to broaden and to thus enter the bulk of the films upon thermal stimulation at suitable elevated temperatures. The resulting space-charge profiles in the thickness direction were probed by means of Piezoelectrically-generated Pressure Steps (PPSs). It was observed that the chemical surface treatment of PP which led to the formation of nano-structures or the use of bulk nanoparticles from LDPE/MgO nanocomposites enhance charge trapping on or in the respective polymer films and also reduce charge transport inside the respective samples.

Dielectric materials for electro-active (electret) and/or electro-passive (insulation) applications
(2019)

Dielectric materials for electret applications usually have to contain a quasi-permanent space charge or dipole polarization that is stable over large temperature ranges and time periods. For electrical-insulation applications, on the other hand, a quasi-permanent space charge or dipole polarization is usually considered detrimental. In recent years, however, with the advent of high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission and high-voltage capacitors for energy storage, new possibilities are being explored in the area of high-voltage dielectrics. Stable charge trapping (as e.g. found in nano-dielectrics) or large dipole polarizations (as e.g. found in relaxor ferroelectrics and high-permittivity dielectrics) are no longer considered to be necessarily detrimental in electrical-insulation materials. On the other hand, recent developments in electro-electrets (dielectric elastomers), i.e. very soft dielectrics with large actuation strains and high breakdown fields, and in ferroelectrets, i.e. polymers with electrically charged cavities, have resulted in new electret materials that may also be useful for HVDC insulation systems. Furthermore, 2-dimensional (nano-particles on surfaces or interfaces) and 3-dimensional (nano-particles in the bulk) nano-dielectrics have been found to provide very good charge-trapping properties that may not only be used for more stable electrets and ferroelectrets, but also for better HVDC electrical-insulation materials with the possibility to optimize charge-transport and field-gradient behavior. In view of these and other recent developments, a first attempt will be made to review a small selection of electro-active (i.e. electret) and electro-passive (i.e. insulation) dielectrics in direct comparison. Such a comparative approach may lead to synergies in materials concepts and research methods that will benefit both areas. Furthermore, electrets may be very useful for sensing and monitoring applications in electrical-insulation systems, while high-voltage technology is essential for more efficient charging and poling of electret materials.

Tikhonov regularization with oversmoothing penalty for linear statistical inverse learning problems
(2019)

In this paper, we consider the linear ill-posed inverse problem with noisy data in the statistical learning setting. The Tikhonov regularization scheme in Hilbert scales is considered in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space framework to reconstruct the estimator from the random noisy data. We discuss the rates of convergence for the regularized solution under the prior assumptions and link condition. For regression functions with smoothness given in terms of source conditions the error bound can explicitly be established.

Термоактивационная спектроскопия композитных полимерных пленок на основе ударопрочного полистирола
(2019)

С помощью метода токов термостимулированной деполяризации (ТСД) исследованы релаксационные процессы в пленках ударопрочного полистирола (УПС) без наполнителя и с различным содержанием диоксида титана TiO2 (2, 4, 6 об.%). На кривых тока ТСД, полученных для композитных пленок, обнаружено три пика. Первый (α-релаксация) возникает при температуре около 93 °C и соответствует переходу вещества из стеклообразного состояния в высокоэластическое. Второй (ρ-пик) появляется как высокотемпературное плечо α-пика и соответствует процессу высвобождения и движения избыточных носителей заряда. Наличие третьего пика при температуре около 150 ºС характерно только для композитных пленок УПС. Разделение перекрывающихся α- и ρ-пиков проведено методом частичной термоочистки. Последующее применение регуляризующих алгоритмов Тихонова позволило определить энергию активации второго процесcа и сравнить полученное значение с результатом, полученным методом диэлектрической спектроскопии.

Based on data from the ESA Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) and several ground-based, multi-band photometry surveys we have compiled an all-sky catalogue of 39 800 hot subluminous star candidates selected in Gaia DR2 by means of colour, absolute magnitude, and reduced proper motion cuts. We expect the majority of the candidates to be hot subdwarf stars of spectral type B and O, followed by blue horizontal branch stars of late B-type (HBB), hot post-AGB stars, and central stars of planetary nebulae. The contamination by cooler stars should be about 10%. The catalogue is magnitude limited to Gaia G < 19 mag and covers the whole sky. Except within the Galactic plane and LMC/SMC regions, we expect the catalogue to be almost complete up to about 1.5 kpc. The main purpose of this catalogue is to serve as input target list for the large-scale photometric and spectroscopic surveys which are ongoing or scheduled to start in the coming years. In the long run, securing a statistically significant sample of spectroscopically confirmed hot subluminous stars is key to advance towards a more detailed understanding of the latest stages of stellar evolution for single and binary stars.

Levy walks are continuous time random walks with spatio-temporal coupling of jump lengths and waiting times, often used to model superdiffusive spreading processes such as animals searching for food, tracer motion in weakly chaotic systems, or even the dynamics in quantum systems such as cold atoms. In the simplest version Levy walks move with a finite speed. Here, we present an extension of the Levy walk scenario for the case when external force fields influence the motion. The resulting motion is a combination of the response to the deterministic force acting on the particle, changing its velocity according to the principle of total energy conservation, and random velocity reversals governed by the distribution of waiting times. For the fact that the motion stays conservative, that is, on a constant energy surface, our scenario is fundamentally different from thermal motion in the same external potentials. In particular, we present results for the velocity and position distributions for single well potentials of different steepness. The observed dynamics with its continuous velocity changes enriches the theory of Levy walk processes and will be of use in a variety of systems, for which the particles are externally confined.

We study generalized diffusion-wave equation in which the second order time derivative is replaced by an integro-differential operator. It yields time fractional and distributed order time fractional diffusion-wave equations as particular cases. We consider different memory kernels of the integro-differential operator, derive corresponding fundamental solutions, specify the conditions of their non-negativity and calculate the mean squared displacement for all cases. In particular, we introduce and study generalized diffusion-wave equations with a regularized Prabhakar derivative of single and distributed orders. The equations considered can be used for modeling the broad spectrum of anomalous diffusion processes and various transitions between different diffusion regimes.

Context. HD 93129A was classified as the earliest O-type star in the Galaxy (O2 If*) and is considered as the prototype of its spectral class. However, interferometry shows that this object is a binary system, while recent observations even suggest a triple configuration. None of the previous spectral analyses of this object accounted for its multiplicity. With new high-resolution UV and optical spectra, we have the possibility to reanalyze this key object, taking its binary nature into account for the first time. Aims. We aim to derive the fundamental parameters and the evolutionary status of HD 93129A, identifying the contributions of both components to the composite spectrum Results. Despite the similar spectral types of the two components, we are able to find signatures from each of the components in the combined spectrum, which allows us to estimate the parameters of both stars. We derive log(L/L-circle dot) = 6.15, T-eff = 52 kK, and log (M)over dot = -4.7[M-circle dot yr(-1)] for the primary Aa, and log(L/L-circle dot) = 5.58, T-eff = 45 kK, and log (M)over dot = -5.8 [M(circle dot)yr(-1)] for the secondary Ab. Conclusions. Even when accounting for the binary nature, the primary of HD 93129A is found to be one of the hottest and most luminous O stars in our Galaxy. Based on the theoretical decomposition of the spectra, we assign spectral types O2 If* and O3 III(f*) to components Aa and Ab, respectively. While we achieve a good fit for a wide spectral range, specific spectral features are not fully reproduced. The data are not sufficient to identify contributions from a hypothetical third component in the system.

During development in human erythrocytes, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum internalizes a large part of the cellular content of the host cell. The internalized cytosol, consisting largely of hemoglobin, is transported to the parasite’s food vacuole where it is degraded, providing nutrients and space for growth. This host cell cytosol uptake (HCCU) is crucial for parasite survival but the parasite proteins mediating this process remain obscure. Here, we identify P. falciparum VPS45 as an essential factor in HCCU. Conditional inactivation of PfVPS45 led to an accumulation of host cell cytosol-filled vesicles within the parasite and inhibited the delivery of hemoglobin to the parasite's digestive vacuole, resulting in arrested parasite growth. A proportion of these HCCU vesicle intermediates was positive for phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, suggesting endosomal characteristics. Thus PfVPS45 provides insight into the elusive machinery of the ingestion pathway in a parasite that contains an endolysosomal system heavily repurposed for protein secretion.