520 Astronomie und zugeordnete Wissenschaften
Is part of the Bibliography
Interplay of coupling and common noise at the transition to synchrony in oscillator populations
Anastasiya V. Pimenova
Denis S. Goldobin
- There are two ways to synchronize oscillators: by coupling and by common forcing, which can be pure noise. By virtue of the Ott-Antonsen ansatz for sine-coupled phase oscillators, we obtain analytically tractable equations for the case where both coupling and common noise are present. While noise always tends to synchronize the phase oscillators, the repulsive coupling can act against synchrony, and we focus on this nontrivial situation. For identical oscillators, the fully synchronous state remains stable for small repulsive coupling; moreover it is an absorbing state which always wins over the asynchronous regime. For oscillators with a distribution of natural frequencies, we report on a counter-intuitive effect of dispersion (instead of usual convergence) of the oscillators frequencies at synchrony; the latter effect disappears if noise vanishes.
Detecting and understanding extragalactic Lyman α emission using 3D spectroscopy
Edmund Christian Herenz
- In this thesis we use integral-field spectroscopy to detect and understand of Lyman α (Lyα) emission from high-redshift galaxies.
Intrinsically the Lyα emission at λ = 1216 Å is the strongest recombination line from galaxies. It arises from the 2p → 1s transition in hydrogen. In star-forming galaxies the line is powered by ionisation of the interstellar gas by hot O- and B- stars. Galaxies with star-formation rates of 1 - 10 Msol/year are expected to have Lyα luminosities of 42 dex - 43 dex (erg/s), corresponding to fluxes ~ -17 dex - -18 dex (erg/s/cm²) at redshifts z~3, where Lyα is easily accessible with ground-based telescopes. However, star-forming galaxies do not show these expected Lyα fluxes. Primarily this is a consequence of the high-absorption cross-section of neutral hydrogen for Lyα photons σ ~ -14 dex (cm²). Therefore, in typical interstellar environments Lyα photons have to undergo a complex radiative transfer. The exact conditions under which Lyα photons can escape a galaxy are poorly understood.
Here we present results from three observational projects. In Chapter 2, we show integral field spectroscopic observations of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies in Balmer α radiation (Hα, λ = 6562.8 Å). These observations were obtained with the Potsdam Multi Aperture Spectrophotometer at the Calar-Alto 3.5m Telescope}. Hα directly traces the intrinsic Lyα radiation field. We present Hα velocity fields and velocity dispersion maps spatially registered onto Hubble Space Telescope Lyα and Hα images. From our observations, we conjecture a causal connection between spatially resolved Hα kinematics and Lyα photometry for individual galaxies. Statistically, we find that dispersion-dominated galaxies are more likely to emit Lyα photons than galaxies where ordered gas-motions dominate. This result indicates that turbulence in actively star-forming systems favours an escape of Lyα radiation.
Not only massive stars can power Lyα radiation, but also non-thermal emission from an accreting super-massive black hole in the galaxy centre. If a galaxy harbours such an active galactic nucleus, the rate of hydrogen-ionising photons can be more than 1000 times higher than that of a typical star-forming galaxy. This radiation can potentially ionise large regions well outside the main stellar body of galaxies. Therefore, it is expected that the neutral hydrogen from these circum-galactic regions shines fluorescently in Lyα. Circum-galactic gas plays a crucial role in galaxy formation. It may act as a reservoir for fuelling star formation, and it is also subject to feedback processes that expel galactic material. If Lyα emission from this circum-galactic medium (CGM) was detected, these important processes could be studied in-situ around high-z galaxies. In Chapter 3, we show observations of five radio-quiet quasars with PMAS to search for possible extended CGM emission in the Lyα line. However, in four of the five objects, we find no significant traces of this emission. In the fifth object, there is evidence for a weak and spatially quite compact Lyα excess at several kpc outside the nucleus. The faintness of these structures is consistent with the idea that radio-quiet quasars typically reside in dark matter haloes of modest masses. While we were not able to detect Lyα CGM emission, our upper limits provide constraints for the new generation of IFS instruments at 8--10m class telescopes.
The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at ESOs Very Large Telescopeis such an unique instrument. One of the main motivating drivers in its construction was the use as a survey instrument for Lyα emitting galaxies at high-z. Currently, we are conducting such a survey that will cover a total area of ~100 square arcminutes with 1 hour exposures for each 1 square arcminute MUSE pointing. As a first result from this survey we present in Chapter 5 a catalogue of 831 emission-line selected galaxies from a 22.2 square arcminute region in the Chandra Deep Field South. In order to construct the catalogue, we developed and implemented a novel source detection algorithm -- LSDCat -- based on matched filtering for line emission in 3D spectroscopic datasets (Chapter 4). Our catalogue contains 237 Lyα emitting galaxies in the redshift range 3 ≲ z ≲ 6. Only four of those previously had spectroscopic redshifts in the literature. We conclude this thesis with an outlook on the construction of a Lyα luminosity function based on this unique sample (Chapter 6).
Dense stellar systems and massive black holes
Pau Amaro Seoane
- Gravity dictates the structure of the whole Universe and, although it is triumphantly described by the theory of General Relativity, it is the force that we least understand in nature. One of the cardinal predictions of this theory are black holes. Massive, dark objects are found in the majority of galaxies. Our own galactic center very contains such an object with a mass of about four million solar masses. Are these objects supermassive black holes (SMBHs), or do we need alternatives? The answer lies in the event horizon, the characteristic that defines a black hole. The key to probe the horizon is to model the movement of stars around a SMBH, and the interactions between them, and look for deviations from real observations. Nuclear star clusters harboring a massive, dark object with a mass of up to ~ ten million solar masses are good testbeds to probe the event horizon of the potential SMBH with stars. The channel for interactions between stars and the central MBH are the fact that (a) compact stars and stellar-mass black holes can gradually inspiral into the SMBH due to the emission of gravitational radiation, which is known as an “Extreme Mass Ratio Inspiral” (EMRI), and (b) stars can produce gases which will be accreted by the SMBH through normal stellar evolution, or by collisions and disruptions brought about by the strong central tidal field. Such processes can contribute significantly to the mass of the SMBH. These two processes involve different disciplines, which combined will provide us with detailed information about the fabric of space and time. In this habilitation I present nine articles of my recent work directly related with these topics.
Optical frequency comb generation in optical fibres
- Optical frequency combs (OFC) constitute an array of phase-correlated equidistant spectral lines with nearly equal intensities over a broad spectral range. The adaptations of combs generated in mode-locked lasers proved to be highly efficient for the calibration of high-resolution (resolving power > 50000) astronomical spectrographs. The observation of different galaxy structures or the studies of the Milky Way are done using instruments in the low- and medium resolution range. To such instruments belong, for instance, the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) being developed for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the 4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope (4MOST) being in development for the ESO VISTA 4.1 m Telescope. The existing adaptations of OFC from mode-locked lasers are not resolvable by these instruments.
Within this work, a fibre-based approach for generation of OFC specifically in the low- and medium resolution range is studied numerically. This approach consists of three optical fibres that are fed by two equally intense continuous-wave (CW) lasers. The first fibre is a conventional single-mode fibre, the second one is a suitably pumped amplifying Erbium-doped fibre with anomalous dispersion, and the third one is a low-dispersion highly nonlinear optical fibre. The evolution of a frequency comb in this system is governed by the following processes: as the two initial CW-laser waves with different frequencies propagate through the first fibre, they generate an initial comb via a cascade of four-wave mixing processes. The frequency components of the comb are phase-correlated with the original laser lines and have a frequency spacing that is equal to the initial laser frequency separation (LFS), i.e. the difference in the laser frequencies. In the time domain, a train of pre-compressed pulses with widths of a few pico-seconds arises out of the initial bichromatic deeply-modulated cosine-wave. These pulses undergo strong compression in the subsequent amplifying Erbium-doped fibre: sub-100 fs pulses with broad OFC spectra are formed. In the following low-dispersion highly nonlinear fibre, the OFC experience a further broadening and the intensity of the comb lines are fairly equalised. This approach was mathematically modelled by means of a Generalised Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation (GNLS) that contains terms describing the nonlinear optical Kerr effect, the delayed Raman response, the pulse self-steepening, and the linear optical losses as well as the wavelength-dependent Erbium gain profile for the second fibre. The initial condition equation being a deeply-modulated cosine-wave mimics the radiation of the two initial CW lasers. The numerical studies are performed with the help of Matlab scripts that were specifically developed for the integration of the GNLS and the initial condition according to the proposed approach for the OFC generation. The scripts are based on the Fourth-Order Runge-Kutta in the Interaction Picture Method (RK4IP) in combination with the local error method.
This work includes the studies and results on the length optimisation of the first and the second fibre depending on different values of the group-velocity dispersion of the first fibre. Such length optimisation studies are necessary because the OFC have the biggest possible broadband and exhibit a low level of noise exactly at the optimum lengths. Further, the optical pulse build-up in the first and the second fibre was studied by means of the numerical technique called Soliton Radiation Beat Analysis (SRBA). It was shown that a common soliton crystal state is formed in the first fibre for low laser input powers. The soliton crystal continuously dissolves into separated optical solitons as the input power increases. The pulse formation in the second fibre is critically dependent on the features of the pulses formed in the first fibre. I showed that, for low input powers, an adiabatic soliton compression delivering low-noise OFC occurs in the second fibre. At high input powers, the pulses in the first fibre have more complicated structures which leads to the pulse break-up in the second fibre with a subsequent degradation of the OFC noise performance. The pulse intensity noise studies that were performed within the framework of this thesis allow making statements about the noise performance of an OFC. They showed that the intensity noise of the whole system decreases with the increasing value of LFS.
Mass wasting and the Coriolis effect on asteroid Vesta
Katharina Alexandra Otto
- This work investigates the influence of the Coriolis force on mass motion related to the Rheasilvia impact basin on asteroid (4) Vesta's southern hemisphere. The giant basin is 500km in diameter, with a centre which nearly coincides with the rotation axis of Vesta. The Rheasilvia basin partially overlaps an earlier, similarly large impact basin, Veneneia.
Mass motion within and in the vicinity of the Rheasilvia basin includes slumping and landslides, which, primarily due to their small linear extents, have not been noticeably affected by the Coriolis force. However, a series of ridges related to the basin exhibit significant curvature, which may record the effect of the Coriolis force on the mass motion which generated them.
In this thesis 32 of these curved ridges, in three geologically distinct regions, were examined. The mass motion velocities from which the ridge curvatures may have resulted during the crater modification stage were investigated. Velocity profiles were derived by fitting inertial circles along the curved ridges and considering both the current and past rotation states of Vesta. An iterative, statistical approach was used, whereby the radii of inertial circles were obtained through repeated fitting to triplets of points across the ridges. The most frequently found radius for each central point was then used for velocity derivation at that point.
The results of the velocity analysis are strongly supportive of a Coriolis force origin for the curved ridges. Derived velocities (29.6 ± 24.6 m/s) generally agree well with previously published predictions from numerical simulations of mass motion during the impact process. Topographical features such as local slope gradient and mass deposition regions on the curved ridges also independently agree with regions in which the calculated mass motion accelerates or decelerates.
Sections of constant acceleration, deceleration and constant velocity are found, showing that mass motion is being governed by varying conditions of topography, regolith structure and friction. Estimates of material properties such as the effective viscosities (1.9-9.0·10⁶ Pa·s) and coefficients of friction (0.02-0.81) are derived from the velocity profile information in these sections. From measured accelerations of mass motions on the crater wall, it is also shown that the crater walls must have been locally steeper at the time of the mass motion.
Together with these novel insights into the state and behaviour of material moving during the modification stage of Rheasilvia's formation, this work represents the first time that the Coriolis Effect on mass motions during crater formation has been shown to result in diagnostic features preserved until today.
The Swift monitoring of the colliding wind binary WR 21a
A. M. T. Pollock
P. M. Williams
- The X-ray observations of the colliding wind binary WR 21a is reported. The first monitoring performed by Swift/XRT in order to reveal the phase-locked variation. Our observations cover 201 different epochs from 2013 October 1 to 2015 January 30 for a total exposure of about 306 ks. It is found for the first time that the luminosity varies roughly in inverse proportion to the separation of the two stars before the X-ray maximum but later drops rapidly toward periastron.
The Wolf-Rayet stars WR102c and 102ka and their isolation
L. M. Oskinova
- While the majority of very massive stars is clearly found in clusters, there are also very massive objects not associated with any cluster, suggesting they may have been born in isolation. In order to gain more insights, we studied the regions around two WR stars in the Galactic Center region. To understand the nature of the potential cluster around massive stars, photometry alone is not sufficient. We therefore used the ESO VLT/SINFONI integral field spectrograph to obtain photometry and spectra for the whole region around our two candidate stars. In total, more than 60 stars have been found and assigned a spectral type.
Envelope Inflation or Stellar Wind?
C. D. Matzner
- We an optically-thick, transonic, steady wind model for a H-free Wolf-Rayet star. A bifurcation is found across a critical mass loss rate Mb. Slower winds M < Mb extend by several hydrostatic stellar radii, reproduce features of envelope in ation from Petrovic et al. (2006) and Gräfener et al. (2012), and are energetically unbound. This work is of particular interest for extended envelopes and winds, radiative hydrodynamic instabilities (eg. wind stagnation, clumping, etc.), and NLTE atmospheric models.
3D numerical model for NGC 6888 Nebula
P. F. Velázquez
- We present 3D numerical simulations of the NGC6888 nebula considering the proper motion and the evolution of the star, from the red supergiant (RSG) to the Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase. Our simulations reproduce the limb-brightened morphology observed in [OIII] and X-ray emission maps. The synthetic maps computed by the numerical simulations show filamentary and clumpy structures produced by instabilities triggered in the interaction between the WR wind and the RSG shell.
A not so massive cluster hosting a very massive star
S. Ramírez Alegría
J. A. Carballo-Bello
- We present the first physical characterization of the young open cluster VVVCL041. We spectroscopically observed the cluster main-sequence stellar population and a very-massive star candidate: WR62-2. CMFGEN modelling to our near-infrared spectra indicates that WR62-2 is a very luminous (10^6.4±0.2 L⊙)and massive (∼ 80M⊙) star.