## 510 Mathematik

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We show that the residue density of the logarithm of a generalized Laplacian on a closed manifold definesan invariant polynomial-valued differential form. We express it in terms of a finite sum of residues ofclassical pseudodifferential symbols. In the case of the square of a Dirac operator, these formulas providea pedestrian proof of the Atiyah–Singer formula for a pure Dirac operator in four dimensions and for atwisted Dirac operator on a flat space of any dimension. These correspond to special cases of a moregeneral formula by Scott and Zagier. In our approach, which is of perturbative nature, we use either aCampbell–Hausdorff formula derived by Okikiolu or a noncommutative Taylor-type formula.

We show that the residue density of the logarithm of a generalized Laplacian on a closed manifold defines an invariant polynomial-valued differential form. We express it in terms of a finite sum of residues of
classical pseudodifferential symbols. In the case of the square of a Dirac operator, these formulas provide a pedestrian proof of the Atiyah–Singer formula for a pure Dirac operator in four dimensions and for a
twisted Dirac operator on a flat space of any dimension. These correspond to special cases of a more general formula by Scott and Zagier. In our approach, which is of perturbative nature, we use either a Campbell–Hausdorff formula derived by Okikiolu or a noncommutative Taylor-type formula.

We study origin, parameter optimization, and thermodynamic efficiency of isothermal rocking ratchets based on fractional subdiffusion within a generalized non-Markovian Langevin equation approach. A corresponding multi-dimensional Markovian embedding dynamics is realized using a set of auxiliary Brownian particles elastically coupled to the central Brownian particle (see video on the journal web site). We show that anomalous subdiffusive transport emerges due to an interplay of nonlinear response and viscoelastic effects for fractional Brownian motion in periodic potentials with broken space-inversion symmetry and driven by a time-periodic field. The anomalous transport becomes optimal for a subthreshold driving when the driving period matches a characteristic time scale of interwell transitions. It can also be optimized by varying temperature, amplitude of periodic potential and driving strength. The useful work done against a load shows a parabolic dependence on the load strength. It grows sublinearly with time and the corresponding thermodynamic efficiency decays algebraically in time because the energy supplied by the driving field scales with time linearly. However, it compares well with the efficiency of normal diffusion rocking ratchets on an appreciably long time scale.

In this thesis we introduce the concept of the degree of formality. It is directed against a dualistic point of view, which only distinguishes between formal and informal proofs. This dualistic attitude does not respect the differences between the argumentations classified as informal and it is unproductive because the individual potential of the respective argumentation styles cannot be appreciated and remains untapped.
This thesis has two parts. In the first of them we analyse the concept of the degree of formality (including a discussion about the respective benefits for each degree) while in the second we demonstrate its usefulness in three case studies. In the first case study we will repair Haskell B. Curry's view of mathematics, which incidentally is of great importance in the first part of this thesis, in light of the different degrees of formality. In the second case study we delineate how awareness of the different degrees of formality can be used to help students to learn how to prove. Third, we will show how the advantages of proofs of different degrees of formality can be combined by the development of so called tactics having a medium degree of formality. Together the three case studies show that the degrees of formality provide a convincing solution to the problem of untapped potential.

In various biological systems and small scale technological applications particles transiently bind to a cylindrical surface. Upon unbinding the particles diffuse in the vicinal bulk before rebinding to the surface. Such bulk-mediated excursions give rise to an effective surface translation, for which we here derive and discuss the dynamic equations, including additional surface diffusion. We discuss the time evolution of the number of surface-bound particles, the effective surface mean squared displacement, and the surface propagator. In particular, we observe sub- and superdiffusive regimes. A plateau of the surface mean-squared displacement reflects a stalling of the surface diffusion at longer times. Finally, the corresponding first passage problem for the cylindrical geometry is analysed.

We study pattern-forming instabilities in reaction-advection-diffusion systems. We develop an approach based on Lyapunov-Bloch exponents to figure out the impact of a spatially periodic mixing flow on the stability of a spatially homogeneous state. We deal with the flows periodic in space that may have arbitrary time dependence. We propose a discrete in time model, where reaction, advection, and diffusion act as successive operators, and show that a mixing advection can lead to a pattern-forming instability in a two-component system where only one of the species is advected. Physically, this can be explained as crossing a threshold of Turing instability due to effective increase of one of the diffusion constants.

The space missions Voyager and Cassini together with earthbound observations re-vealed a wealth of structures in Saturn’s rings. There are, for example, waves being excited at ring positions which are in orbital resonance with Saturn’s moons. Other structures can be assigned to embedded moons like empty gaps, moon induced wakes or S-shaped propeller features. Further-more, irregular radial structures are observed in the range from 10 meters until kilometers. Here some of these structures will be discussed in the frame of hydrodynamical modeling of Saturn’s dense rings. For this purpose we will characterize the physical properties of the ring particle ensemble by mean field quantities and point to the special behavior of the transport coefficients. We show that unperturbed rings can become unstable and how diffusion acts in the rings. Additionally, the alternative streamline formalism is introduced to describe perturbed regions of dense rings with applications to the wake damping and the dispersion relation of the density waves.

In this thesis, we discuss the characterization of orthogroups by so-called disjunctions of identities. The orthogroups are a subclass of the class of completely regular semigroups, a generalization of the concept of a group. Thus there is for all elements of an orthogroup some kind of an inverse element such that both elements commute. Based on a fundamental result by A.H. Clifford, every completely regular semigroup is a semilattice of completely simple semigroups. This allows the description the gross structure of such semigroup. In particular every orthogroup is a semilattice of rectangular groups which are isomorphic to direct products of rectangular bands and groups. Semilattices of rectangular groups coming from various classes are characterized using the concept of an alternative variety, a generalization of the classical idea of a variety by Birkhoff.
After starting with some fundamental definitions and results concerning semigroups, we introduce the concept of disjunctions of identities and summarize some necessary properties. In particular we present some disjunction of identities which is sufficient for a semigroup for being completely regular. Furthermore we derive from this identity some statements concerning Rees matrix semigroups, a possible representation of completely simple semigroups. A main result of this thesis is the general description of disjunctions of identities such that a completely regular semigroup satisfying the described identity is a semilattice of left groups (right groups / groups). In this case the completely regular semigroup is an orthogroup. Furthermore we define various classes of rectangular groups such that there is an exponent taken from a set of pairwise coprime positive integers. An important result is the characterization of the class of all semilattices of particular rectangular groups (taken from the classes defined before) using a set-theoretic minimal set of disjunctions of identities. Additionally we investigate semilattices of groups (so-called Clifford semigroups). For this purpose we consider abelian groups of particular exponents and prove some well-known results from the theory of Clifford semigroups in an alternative way applying the concept of disjunctions of identities. As a practical application of the results concerning semilattices of left zero semigroups and right zero semigroups we identify a particular transformation semigroup. For more detailed information about the product of two arbitrary elements of a semilattice of semigroups we introduce the concept of strong semilattices of semigroups. It is well-known that a semilattice of groups is a strong semilattice of groups. So we can characterize a strong semilattice of groups of particular pairwise coprime exponents by disjunctions of identities. Additionally we describe the class of all strong semilattices of left zero semigroups and right zero semigroups with the help of such kind of identity, and we relate this statement to the theory of normal bands. A possible extension of the already described semilattices of rectangular groups can be achieved by an auxiliary total order (in terms of chains of semigroups). To this end we present a corresponding characterization due to disjunctions of identities which is obviously minimal. A list of open questions which have arisen during the research for this thesis, but left crude, is attached.

In the thesis there are constructed new quantizations for pseudo-differential boundary value problems (BVPs) on manifolds with edge. The shape of operators comes from Boutet de Monvel’s calculus which exists on smooth manifolds with boundary. The singular case, here with edge and boundary, is much more complicated. The present approach simplifies the operator-valued symbolic structures by using suitable Mellin quantizations on infinite stretched model cones of wedges with boundary. The Mellin symbols themselves are, modulo smoothing ones, with asymptotics, holomorphic in the complex Mellin covariable. One of the main results is the construction of parametrices of elliptic elements in the corresponding operator algebra, including elliptic edge conditions.