Is part of the Bibliography
Das Leben im Menschen oder der Mensch im Leben?
Hervé Toussaint Ondoua
Moritz von Kalckreuth
Bruno Batista Rates
Jasper van Buuren
- In der Philosophie des 20. Jahrhunderts wird deutlich, dass es in Frankreich und in Deutschland voneinander abweichende Sichtweisen auf die Frage gibt, ob der Mensch eine "Sonderstellung" in der Dynamik des biologischen und geschichtlichen Lebens genießt. Während sich in Deutschland die Tradition eines anthropologischen Denkens neu formiert, ist in Frankreich eine scharfe Skepsis gegenüber dem Erbe des Humanismus charakteristisch. Die Beiträge dieses zweisprachigen Buches untersuchen diese deutsch-französische Konstellation von Fragen und Autoren, und aktualisieren die Reflexion auf die (Grenzen der) Singularität des Menschen.
Models of heat transport in the Central European Basin System: Effective mechanisms at different scales
Yuriy Petrovich Maystrenko
Bjoern Onno Kaiser
- Understanding heat transport in sedimentary basins requires an assessment of the regional 3D heat distribution and of the main physical mechanisms responsible for the transport of heat. We review results from different 3D numerical simulations of heat transport based on 3D basin models of the Central European Basin System (CEBS). Therefore we compare differently detailed 3D structural models of the area, previously published individually, to assess the influence of (1) different configurations of the deeper lithosphere, (2) the mechanism of heat transport considered and (3) large faults dissecting the sedimentary succession on the resulting thermal field and groundwater flow. Based on this comparison we propose a modelling strategy linking the regional and lithosphere-scale to the sub-basin and basin-fill scale and appropriately considering the effective heat transport processes. We find that conduction as the dominant mechanism of heat transport in sedimentary basins is controlled by the distribution of thermal conductivities, compositional and thickness variations of both the conductive and radiogenic crystalline crust as well as the insulating sediments and by variations in the depth to the thermal lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Variations of these factors cause thermal anomalies of specific wavelength and must be accounted for in regional thermal studies. In addition advective heat transport also exerts control on the thermal field on the regional scale. In contrast, convective heat transport and heat transport along faults is only locally important and needs to be considered for exploration on the reservoir scale. The general applicability of the proposed workflow makes it of interest for a broad range of application in geosciences including oil and gas exploration, geothermal utilization or carbon capture and sequestration issues. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Future changes in extratropical storm tracks and baroclinicity under climate change
Alexey V. Eliseev
- The weather in Eurasia, Australia, and North and South America is largely controlled by the strength and position of extratropical storm tracks. Future climate change will likely affect these storm tracks and the associated transport of energy, momentum, and water vapour. Many recent studies have analyzed how storm tracks will change under climate change, and how these changes are related to atmospheric dynamics. However, there are still discrepancies between different studies on how storm tracks will change under future climate scenarios. Here, we show that under global warming the CMIP5 ensemble of coupled climate models projects only little relative changes in vertically averaged mid-latitude mean storm track activity during the northern winter, but agree in projecting a substantial decrease during summer. Seasonal changes in the Southern Hemisphere show the opposite behaviour, with an intensification in winter and no change during summer. These distinct seasonal changes in northern summer and southern winter storm tracks lead to an amplified seasonal cycle in a future climate. Similar changes are seen in the mid-latitude mean Eady growth rate maximum, a measure that combines changes in vertical shear and static stability based on baroclinic instability theory. Regression analysis between changes in the storm tracks and changes in the maximum Eady growth rate reveal that most models agree in a positive association between the two quantities over mid-latitude regions.
ADMET polymerization of amino-acid-based diene
Felix N. Fuehrer
- 1,4-Di(homo)allyl-2,5-diketopiperazines are synthesized and polymerized via ADMET using the Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst. The but-3-enylated diketopiperazine can be converted into unsaturated tertiary polyamide with molar mass of <3000 g mol(-1), whereas the allylated diketopiperazine cannot. Double-bond isomerization occurs regardless of whether or not benzoquinone is present. A polyesteramide with a higher molar mass of ca. 4800 g mol(-1) is obtained by the alternating copolymerization (ALTMET) of 1,4-di(but-3-enyl)-2,5-di ketopiperazine and ethylene glycol diacrylate. A post-polymerization modification of the poly(ester)amides via radical thiol-ene chemistry, however, fails.
Tracking the impact of mid- to late Holocene climate change and anthropogenic activities on Lake Holzmaar using an updated Holocene chronology
- The mid- to late Holocene interval is characterised by a highly variable climate in response to a gradual change in orbital insolation. The seasonal impact of these changes on the Eifel Maar region is not yet well documented largely due to uncertainties about the completeness of this archive ("missing varves" in the well known Lake Holzmaar) and a limited understanding of the factors (e.g. temperature, precipitation) influencing the seasonality archived within the lamination/varves. In this study we approach these challenges from a different perspective. Using detailed microfacies investigations we: (1) demonstrate that the ambiguity about the "missing varves" is related to the climate induced complex biotic and abiotic laminations that led to mis-identification of varves; (2) use a combination of detailed microfacies investigations (varve structure, seasonality of biotic and abiotic signals), lamination quality, varve counts on multiple cores, published and new radiocarbon dates to develop a continuous master chronology based on the Bayesian modelling approach. The dates of major climate, volcanic, and archaeological event(s) determined using our model are in good agreement with the independently determined ages of the same events from other archives, confirming the accuracy of our age model; (3) test the sensitivity of the seasonal proxies to the available data on mid-Holocene changes in temperature and precipitation; (4) demonstrate that the changes in lake eutrophicity are correlative with temperature changes in NW Europe and probably triggered by solar variability; and (5) show that the early Iron Age onset of eutrophication in Lake Holzmaar was climate induced and began several decades before the impact of anthropogenic activity was seen in the form of intensified detrital erosion in the catchment area. Our work has implications for understanding the impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on limnological systems. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An automated GCxGC-TOF-MS protocol for batch-wise extraction and alignment of mass isotopomer matrixes from differential C-13-labelling experiments : a case study for photoautotrophic-mixotrophic grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells
- Two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF-MS) is a promising technique to overcome limits of complex metabolome analysis using one dimensional GC-TOF-MS. Especially at the stage of data export and data mining, however, convenient procedures to cope with the complexity of GCxGC-TOF-MS data are still in development. Here, we present a high sample throughput protocol exploiting first and second retention index for spectral library search and subsequent construction of a high dimensional data matrix useful for statistical analysis. The method was applied to the analysis of 13 C-labelling experiments in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We developed a rapid sampling and extraction procedure for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii laboratory strain (CC503), a cell wall deficient mutant. By testing all published quenching protocols we observed dramatic metabolite leakage rates for certain metabolites. To circumvent metabolite leakage, samples were directly quenched and analyzed without separation of the medium. The growth medium was adapted to this rapid sampling protocol to avoid interference with GCxGC-TOF-MS analysis. To analyse batches of samples a new software tool, MetMax, was implemented which extracts the isotopomer matrix from stable isotope labelling experiments together with the first and second retention index (RI1 and RI2). To exploit RI1 and RI2 for metabolite identification we used the Golm metabolome database (GMD  with RI1/ RI2-reference spectra and new search algorithms. Using those techniques we analysed the dynamics of (CO2)-C-13 and C-13- acetate uptake in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells in two different steady states namely photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions.
Analysen zur Stressantwort von Arabidopsis thaliana unter Schwefelmangelbedingungen : Studien zur Funktion der Dehydroascorbatreduktase in vivo
Solvato-, vapo, mechanochromic and luminescent behavior of Rhodium, Platinum and Gold complexes and their coordination polymers
Viviane A. Friese
Thermokarst dynamics in central-eastern Beringia
- Widespread landscape changes are presently observed in the Arctic and are most likely to
accelerate in the future, in particular in permafrost regions which are sensitive to climate warming. To assess current and future developments, it is crucial to understand past
environmental dynamics in these landscapes. Causes and interactions of environmental variability can hardly be resolved by instrumental records covering modern time scales. However, long-term
environmental variability is recorded in paleoenvironmental archives. Lake sediments are important archives that allow reconstruction of local limnogeological processes as well as past environmental changes driven directly or indirectly by climate dynamics. This study aims at
reconstructing Late Quaternary permafrost and thermokarst dynamics in central-eastern Beringia,
the terrestrial land mass connecting Eurasia and North America during glacial sea-level low stands. In order to investigate development, processes and influence of thermokarst dynamics, several sediment cores from extant lakes and drained lake basins were analyzed to answer the
following research questions:
1. When did permafrost degradation and thermokarst lake development take place and what were enhancing and inhibiting environmental factors?
2. What are the dominant processes during thermokarst lake development and how are
they reflected in proxy records?
3. How did, and still do, thermokarst dynamics contribute to the inventory and properties of organic matter in sediments and the carbon cycle?
Methods applied in this study are based upon a multi-proxy approach combining
sedimentological, geochemical, geochronological, and micropaleontological analyses, as well as
analyses of stable isotopes and hydrochemistry of pore-water and ice. Modern field observations of water quality and basin morphometrics complete the environmental investigations.
The investigated sediment cores reveal permafrost degradation and thermokarst dynamics on different time scales. The analysis of a sediment core from GG basin on the northern Seward
Peninsula (Alaska) shows prevalent terrestrial accumulation of yedoma throughout the Early to
Mid Wisconsin with intermediate wet conditions at around 44.5 to 41.5 ka BP. This first wetland
development was terminated by the accumulation of a 1-meter-thick airfall tephra most likely originating from the South Killeak Maar eruption at 42 ka BP. A depositional hiatus between 22.5 and 0.23 ka BP may indicate thermokarst lake formation in the surrounding of the site which forms a yedoma upland till today. The thermokarst lake forming GG basin initiated 230 ± 30 cal a
BP and drained in Spring 2005 AD. Four years after drainage the lake talik was still unfrozen below 268 cm depth.
A permafrost core from Mama Rhonda basin on the northern Seward Peninsula preserved a
full lacustrine record including several lake phases. The first lake generation developed at 11.8 cal ka BP during the Lateglacial-Early Holocene transition; its old basin (Grandma Rhonda) is still partially preserved at the southern margin of the study basin. Around 9.0 cal ka BP a shallow and more dynamic thermokarst lake developed with actively eroding shorelines and potentially intermediate shallow water or wetland phases (Mama Rhonda). Mama Rhonda lake drainage at 1.1 cal ka BP was followed by gradual accumulation of terrestrial peat and top-down refreezing of the lake talik. A significant lower organic carbon content was measured in Grandma Rhonda deposits (mean TOC of 2.5 wt%) than in Mama Rhonda deposits (mean TOC of 7.9 wt%) highlighting the impact of thermokarst dynamics on biogeochemical cycling in different lake generations by thawing and mobilization of organic carbon into the lake system.
Proximal and distal sediment cores from Peatball Lake on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska revealed young thermokarst dynamics since about 1,400 years along a depositional gradient based on reconstructions from shoreline expansion rates and absolute dating results. After its initiation as a remnant pond of a previous drained lake basin, a rapidly deepening lake with increasing oxygenation of the water column is evident from laminated sediments, and higher Fe/Ti and Fe/S ratios in the sediment. The sediment record archived characterizing shifts in depositional regimes and sediment sources from upland deposits and re-deposited sediments from drained thaw lake basins depending on the gradually changing shoreline configuration. These changes are evident from alternating organic inputs into the lake system which highlights the potential for thermokarst lakes to recycle old carbon from degrading permafrost deposits of its catchment.
The lake sediment record from Herschel Island in the Yukon (Canada) covers the full Holocene period. After its initiation as a thermokarst lake at 11.7 cal ka BP and intense thermokarst activity until 10.0 cal ka BP, the steady sedimentation was interrupted by a depositional hiatus at 1.6 cal ka BP which likely resulted from lake drainage or allochthonous slumping due to collapsing shore lines. The specific setting of the lake on a push moraine composed of marine deposits is reflected in the sedimentary record. Freshening of the maturing lake is indicated by decreasing electrical conductivity in pore-water. Alternation of marine to freshwater ostracods and foraminifera confirms decreasing salinity as well but also reflects episodical re-deposition of allochthonous marine sediments.
Based on permafrost and lacustrine sediment records, this thesis shows examples of the Late Quaternary evolution of typical Arctic permafrost landscapes in central-eastern Beringia and the complex interaction of local disturbance processes, regional environmental dynamics and global climate patterns. This study confirms that thermokarst lakes are important agents of organic matter recycling in complex and continuously changing landscapes.
- Der argentinische Schriftsteller Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986) gilt als ein Literat, der bereits in seinen Werken der 30er und 40er Jahre des 20. Jahrhunderts Strukturen geschaffen hat, die später die Postmoderne prägen sollten. Foucault hat sich auf ihn berufen. Borges Erzählungen sind insbesondere von intertextuellen Bezugnahmen und sich in Paradoxien verstrickende Narrative durchzogen. Die Folge ist ein dezentrierter sowie dialogisierender Text, der keine eindeutige Aussage hervorbringt, sondern in einer vielstimmigen und unabgeschlossenen Textauslegung zur Wirkung kommt.
Die vorliegende Studie stellt zur Diskussion, ob ein wesentlicher Grund für Borges’ innovatives, die literarische Postmoderne prägendes Textkonzept darin gesehen werden kann, dass sich der argentinische Schriftsteller nachweislich mit jüdischer Schriftkultur auseinandergesetzt hat. Geht man davon aus, dass die in jüdischer Tradition kultivierte mehrschichtige Textdeutung zugleich einen permanenten, unendlichen Rezeptionsprozess zur Folge hat wird deutlich, dass diese Tradition nicht nur kompatibel zu Borges’ Literatur ist, sondern auch zahlreiche Reflexionen in der modernen Literatur und Literaturforschung angeregt hat.