Is part of the Bibliography
An automated GCxGC-TOF-MS protocol for batch-wise extraction and alignment of mass isotopomer matrixes from differential C-13-labelling experiments : a case study for photoautotrophic-mixotrophic grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells
- Two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF-MS) is a promising technique to overcome limits of complex metabolome analysis using one dimensional GC-TOF-MS. Especially at the stage of data export and data mining, however, convenient procedures to cope with the complexity of GCxGC-TOF-MS data are still in development. Here, we present a high sample throughput protocol exploiting first and second retention index for spectral library search and subsequent construction of a high dimensional data matrix useful for statistical analysis. The method was applied to the analysis of 13 C-labelling experiments in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We developed a rapid sampling and extraction procedure for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii laboratory strain (CC503), a cell wall deficient mutant. By testing all published quenching protocols we observed dramatic metabolite leakage rates for certain metabolites. To circumvent metabolite leakage, samples were directly quenched and analyzed without separation of the medium. The growth medium was adapted to this rapid sampling protocol to avoid interference with GCxGC-TOF-MS analysis. To analyse batches of samples a new software tool, MetMax, was implemented which extracts the isotopomer matrix from stable isotope labelling experiments together with the first and second retention index (RI1 and RI2). To exploit RI1 and RI2 for metabolite identification we used the Golm metabolome database (GMD  with RI1/ RI2-reference spectra and new search algorithms. Using those techniques we analysed the dynamics of (CO2)-C-13 and C-13- acetate uptake in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells in two different steady states namely photoautotrophic and mixotrophic growth conditions.
Analysen zur Stressantwort von Arabidopsis thaliana unter Schwefelmangelbedingungen : Studien zur Funktion der Dehydroascorbatreduktase in vivo
Solvato-, vapo, mechanochromic and luminescent behavior of Rhodium, Platinum and Gold complexes and their coordination polymers
Viviane A. Friese
Thermokarst dynamics in central-eastern Beringia
- Widespread landscape changes are presently observed in the Arctic and are most likely to
accelerate in the future, in particular in permafrost regions which are sensitive to climate warming. To assess current and future developments, it is crucial to understand past
environmental dynamics in these landscapes. Causes and interactions of environmental variability can hardly be resolved by instrumental records covering modern time scales. However, long-term
environmental variability is recorded in paleoenvironmental archives. Lake sediments are important archives that allow reconstruction of local limnogeological processes as well as past environmental changes driven directly or indirectly by climate dynamics. This study aims at
reconstructing Late Quaternary permafrost and thermokarst dynamics in central-eastern Beringia,
the terrestrial land mass connecting Eurasia and North America during glacial sea-level low stands. In order to investigate development, processes and influence of thermokarst dynamics, several sediment cores from extant lakes and drained lake basins were analyzed to answer the
following research questions:
1. When did permafrost degradation and thermokarst lake development take place and what were enhancing and inhibiting environmental factors?
2. What are the dominant processes during thermokarst lake development and how are
they reflected in proxy records?
3. How did, and still do, thermokarst dynamics contribute to the inventory and properties of organic matter in sediments and the carbon cycle?
Methods applied in this study are based upon a multi-proxy approach combining
sedimentological, geochemical, geochronological, and micropaleontological analyses, as well as
analyses of stable isotopes and hydrochemistry of pore-water and ice. Modern field observations of water quality and basin morphometrics complete the environmental investigations.
The investigated sediment cores reveal permafrost degradation and thermokarst dynamics on different time scales. The analysis of a sediment core from GG basin on the northern Seward
Peninsula (Alaska) shows prevalent terrestrial accumulation of yedoma throughout the Early to
Mid Wisconsin with intermediate wet conditions at around 44.5 to 41.5 ka BP. This first wetland
development was terminated by the accumulation of a 1-meter-thick airfall tephra most likely originating from the South Killeak Maar eruption at 42 ka BP. A depositional hiatus between 22.5 and 0.23 ka BP may indicate thermokarst lake formation in the surrounding of the site which forms a yedoma upland till today. The thermokarst lake forming GG basin initiated 230 ± 30 cal a
BP and drained in Spring 2005 AD. Four years after drainage the lake talik was still unfrozen below 268 cm depth.
A permafrost core from Mama Rhonda basin on the northern Seward Peninsula preserved a
full lacustrine record including several lake phases. The first lake generation developed at 11.8 cal ka BP during the Lateglacial-Early Holocene transition; its old basin (Grandma Rhonda) is still partially preserved at the southern margin of the study basin. Around 9.0 cal ka BP a shallow and more dynamic thermokarst lake developed with actively eroding shorelines and potentially intermediate shallow water or wetland phases (Mama Rhonda). Mama Rhonda lake drainage at 1.1 cal ka BP was followed by gradual accumulation of terrestrial peat and top-down refreezing of the lake talik. A significant lower organic carbon content was measured in Grandma Rhonda deposits (mean TOC of 2.5 wt%) than in Mama Rhonda deposits (mean TOC of 7.9 wt%) highlighting the impact of thermokarst dynamics on biogeochemical cycling in different lake generations by thawing and mobilization of organic carbon into the lake system.
Proximal and distal sediment cores from Peatball Lake on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska revealed young thermokarst dynamics since about 1,400 years along a depositional gradient based on reconstructions from shoreline expansion rates and absolute dating results. After its initiation as a remnant pond of a previous drained lake basin, a rapidly deepening lake with increasing oxygenation of the water column is evident from laminated sediments, and higher Fe/Ti and Fe/S ratios in the sediment. The sediment record archived characterizing shifts in depositional regimes and sediment sources from upland deposits and re-deposited sediments from drained thaw lake basins depending on the gradually changing shoreline configuration. These changes are evident from alternating organic inputs into the lake system which highlights the potential for thermokarst lakes to recycle old carbon from degrading permafrost deposits of its catchment.
The lake sediment record from Herschel Island in the Yukon (Canada) covers the full Holocene period. After its initiation as a thermokarst lake at 11.7 cal ka BP and intense thermokarst activity until 10.0 cal ka BP, the steady sedimentation was interrupted by a depositional hiatus at 1.6 cal ka BP which likely resulted from lake drainage or allochthonous slumping due to collapsing shore lines. The specific setting of the lake on a push moraine composed of marine deposits is reflected in the sedimentary record. Freshening of the maturing lake is indicated by decreasing electrical conductivity in pore-water. Alternation of marine to freshwater ostracods and foraminifera confirms decreasing salinity as well but also reflects episodical re-deposition of allochthonous marine sediments.
Based on permafrost and lacustrine sediment records, this thesis shows examples of the Late Quaternary evolution of typical Arctic permafrost landscapes in central-eastern Beringia and the complex interaction of local disturbance processes, regional environmental dynamics and global climate patterns. This study confirms that thermokarst lakes are important agents of organic matter recycling in complex and continuously changing landscapes.
- Der argentinische Schriftsteller Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986) gilt als ein Literat, der bereits in seinen Werken der 30er und 40er Jahre des 20. Jahrhunderts Strukturen geschaffen hat, die später die Postmoderne prägen sollten. Foucault hat sich auf ihn berufen. Borges Erzählungen sind insbesondere von intertextuellen Bezugnahmen und sich in Paradoxien verstrickende Narrative durchzogen. Die Folge ist ein dezentrierter sowie dialogisierender Text, der keine eindeutige Aussage hervorbringt, sondern in einer vielstimmigen und unabgeschlossenen Textauslegung zur Wirkung kommt.
Die vorliegende Studie stellt zur Diskussion, ob ein wesentlicher Grund für Borges’ innovatives, die literarische Postmoderne prägendes Textkonzept darin gesehen werden kann, dass sich der argentinische Schriftsteller nachweislich mit jüdischer Schriftkultur auseinandergesetzt hat. Geht man davon aus, dass die in jüdischer Tradition kultivierte mehrschichtige Textdeutung zugleich einen permanenten, unendlichen Rezeptionsprozess zur Folge hat wird deutlich, dass diese Tradition nicht nur kompatibel zu Borges’ Literatur ist, sondern auch zahlreiche Reflexionen in der modernen Literatur und Literaturforschung angeregt hat.
Spin polarization, circular dichroism, and robustness of topological surface states
Markus Reiner Scholz
- This thesis is focussed on the electronic properties of the new material class named topological insulators. Spin and angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy have been applied to reveal several unique properties of the surface state of these materials. The first part of this thesis introduces the methodical background of these quite established experimental techniques.
In the following chapter, the theoretical concept of topological insulators is introduced. Starting from the prominent example of the quantum Hall effect, the application of topological invariants to classify material systems is illuminated. It is explained how, in presence of time reversal symmetry, which is broken in the quantum Hall phase, strong spin orbit coupling can drive a system into a topologically non trivial phase. The prediction of the spin quantum Hall effect in two dimensional insulators an the generalization to the three dimensional case of topological insulators is reviewed together with the first experimental realization of a three dimensional topological insulator in the Bi1-xSbx alloys given in the literature.
The experimental part starts with the introduction of the Bi2X3 (X=Se, Te) family of materials. Recent theoretical predictions and experimental findings on the bulk and surface electronic structure of these materials are introduced in close discussion to our own experimental results. Furthermore, it is revealed, that the topological surface state of Bi2Te3 shares its orbital symmetry with the bulk valence band and the observation of a temperature induced shift of the chemical potential is to a high probability unmasked as a doping effect due to residual gas adsorption.
The surface state of Bi2Te3 is found to be highly spin polarized with a polarization value of about 70% in a macroscopic area, while in Bi2Se3 the polarization appears reduced, not exceeding 50%. We, however, argue that the polarization is most likely only extrinsically limited in terms of the finite angular resolution and the lacking detectability of the out of plane component of the electron spin. A further argument is based on the reduced surface quality of the single crystals after cleavage and, for Bi2Se3 a sensitivity of the electronic structure to photon exposure.
We probe the robustness of the topological surface state in Bi2X3 against surface impurities in Chapter 5. This robustness is provided through the protection by the time reversal symmetry. Silver, deposited on the (111) surface of Bi2Se3 leads to a strong electron doping but the surface state is observed up to a deposited Ag mass equivalent to one atomic monolayer. The opposite sign of doping, i.e., hole-like, is observed by exposing oxygen to Bi2Te3. But while the n-type shift of Ag on Bi2Se3 appears to be more or less rigid, O2 is lifting the Dirac point of the topological surface state in Bi2Te3 out of the valence band minimum at $\Gamma$. After increasing the oxygen dose further, it is possible to shift the Dirac point to the Fermi level, while the valence band stays well beyond. The effect is found reversible, by warming up the samples which is interpreted in terms of physisorption of O2.
For magnetic impurities, i.e., Fe, we find a similar behavior as for the case of Ag in both Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. However, in that case the robustness is unexpected, since magnetic impurities are capable to break time reversal symmetry which should introduce a gap in the surface state at the Dirac point which in turn removes the protection. We argue, that the fact that the surface state shows no gap must be attributed to a missing magnetization of the Fe overlayer. In Bi2Te3 we are able to observe the surface state for deposited iron mass equivalents in the monolayer regime. Furthermore, we gain control over the sign of doping through the sample temperature during deposition.
Chapter6 is devoted to the lifetime broadening of the photoemission signal from the topological surface states of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. It is revealed that the hexagonal warping of the surface state in Bi2Te3 introduces an anisotropy for electrons traveling along the two distinct high symmetry directions of the surface Brillouin zone, i.e., $\Gamma$K and $\Gamma$M. We show that the phonon coupling strength to the surface electrons in Bi2Te3 is in nice agreement with the theoretical prediction but, nevertheless, higher than one may expect. We argue that the electron-phonon coupling is one of the main contributions to the decay of photoholes but the relatively small size of the Fermi surface limits the number of phonon modes that may scatter off electrons. This effect is manifested in the energy dependence of the imaginary part of the electron self energy of the surface state which shows a decay to higher binding energies in contrast to the monotonic increase proportional to E$^2$ in the Fermi liquid theory due to electron-electron interaction.
Furthermore, the effect of the surface impurities of Chapter 5 on the quasiparticle life- times is investigated. We find that Fe impurities have a much stronger influence on the lifetimes as compared to Ag. Moreover, we find that the influence is stronger independently of the sign of the doping. We argue that this observation suggests a minor contribution of the warping on increased scattering rates in contrast to current belief. This is additionally confirmed by the observation that the scattering rates increase further with increasing silver amount while the doping stays constant and by the fact that clean Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 show very similar scattering rates regardless of the much stronger warping in Bi2Te3.
In the last chapter we report on a strong circular dichroism in the angle distribution of the photoemission signal of the surface state of Bi2Te3. We show that the color pattern obtained by calculating the difference between photoemission intensities measured with opposite photon helicity reflects the pattern expected for the spin polarization. However, we find a strong influence on strength and even sign of the effect when varying the photon energy. The sign change is qualitatively confirmed by means of one-step photoemission calculations conducted by our collaborators from the LMU München, while the calculated spin polarization is found to be independent of the excitation energy. Experiment and theory together unambiguously uncover the dichroism in these systems as a final state effect and the question in the title of the chapter has to be negated: Circular dichroism in the angle distribution is not a new spin sensitive technique.
Adorno und die Kabbala
- Im neunten Band der Reihe geht Ansgar Martins kabbalistischen Spuren in der Philosophie Theodor W. Adornos (1903–1969) nach. Der Frankfurter Gesellschaftskritiker griff im Rahmen seines radikalen materialistischen Projekts gleichwohl auch auf ‚theologische‘ Deutungsfiguren zurück. Vermittelt durch den gemeinsamen Freund Walter Benjamin (1892–1940) stieß Adorno dabei auf das Werk des Kabbala-Forschers Gershom Scholem (1897–1982). Zwischen Frankfurt und Jerusalem entwickelte sich eine lebenslange Korrespondenz.
Für Adorno erscheint vor dem Hintergrund lückenloser kapitalistischer Vergesellschaftung jede religiöse Sinngebung in der Moderne als unmöglich. Der Tradition der jüdischen Mystik schreibt er hingegen eine innere Affinität zu dieser hoffnungslosen Logik des ‚Verfalls‘ zu. Sie scheint ihm zur unumgänglichen Säkularisierung religiöser Gehalte aufzufordern. Adornos kabbalistische Marginalien beziehen einen breiten Horizont jüdisch-messianischer Ideen ein. Er verleugnet dabei nie, dass es ihm um eine sehr diesseite Verwirklichung geoffenbarter Heilsversprechen zu tun ist: Transzendenz sei als erfüllte Immanenz, als verwirklichte Utopie zu denken. In diesem Anliegen sieht Adorno selbst jedoch gerade seine Übereinstimmung mit der Kabbala.
Adornos kabbalistische Motive, die auf Scholems Forschungen zurückgehen, werden hier ausführlich an seinen Schriften und Vorlesungen untersucht. In seinem Verständnis der philosophischen Tradition sowie im Modell der Metaphysischen Erfahrung suchte er etwa explizit Anschluss an Deutungen der Kabbala: Das unerreichbare Urbild der Philosophie sei die Interpretation der geoffenbarten Schrift. Wie säkularisierte heilige Texte wurden Werke von Beethoven, Goethe, Kafka oder Schönberg so zum Anlass für ‚mystische‘ Interpretationen. Deren detaillierte Untersuchung erlaubt, das viel beschworene jüdische Erbe von Adornos Philosophie zu konkretisieren und bedenkenswerte Einzelheiten von der Negativen Dialektik zur Ästhetik in den Blick zu nehmen.
Molecular fundamentals of foam fractionation
- Foam fractionation of surfactant and protein solutions is a process dedicated to separate surface active molecules from each other due to their differences in surface activities. The process is based on forming bubbles in a certain mixed solution followed by detachment and rising of bubbles through a certain volume of this solution, and consequently on the formation of a foam layer on top of the solution column. Therefore, systematic analysis of this whole process comprises of at first investigations dedicated to the formation and growth of single bubbles in solutions, which is equivalent to the main principles of the well-known bubble pressure tensiometry. The second stage of the fractionation process includes the detachment of a single bubble from a pore or capillary tip and its rising in a respective aqueous solution. The third and final stage of the process is the formation and stabilization of the foam created by these bubbles, which contains the adsorption layers formed at the growing bubble surface, carried up and gets modified during the bubble rising and finally ends up as part of the foam layer.
Bubble pressure tensiometry and bubble profile analysis tensiometry experiments were performed with protein solutions at different bulk concentrations, solution pH and ionic strength in order to describe the process of accumulation of protein and surfactant molecules at the bubble surface. The results obtained from the two complementary methods allow understanding the mechanism of adsorption, which is mainly governed by the diffusional transport of the adsorbing protein molecules to the bubble surface. This mechanism is the same as generally discussed for surfactant molecules. However, interesting peculiarities have been observed for protein adsorption kinetics at sufficiently short adsorption times. First of all, at short adsorption times the surface tension remains constant for a while before it decreases as expected due to the adsorption of proteins at the surface. This time interval is called induction time and it becomes shorter with increasing protein bulk concentration. Moreover, under special conditions, the surface tension does not stay constant but even increases over a certain period of time. This so-called negative surface pressure was observed for BCS and BLG and discussed for the first time in terms of changes in the surface conformation of the adsorbing protein molecules. Usually, a negative surface pressure would correspond to a negative adsorption, which is of course impossible for the studied protein solutions. The phenomenon, which amounts to some mN/m, was rather explained by simultaneous changes in the molar area required by the adsorbed proteins and the non-ideality of entropy of the interfacial layer. It is a transient phenomenon and exists only under dynamic conditions.
The experiments dedicated to the local velocity of rising air bubbles in solutions were performed in a broad range of BLG concentration, pH and ionic strength. Additionally, rising bubble experiments were done for surfactant solutions in order to validate the functionality of the instrument. It turns out that the velocity of a rising bubble is much more sensitive to adsorbing molecules than classical dynamic surface tension measurements. At very low BLG or surfactant concentrations, for example, the measured local velocity profile of an air bubble is changing dramatically in time scales of seconds while dynamic surface tensions still do not show any measurable changes at this time scale. The solution’s pH and ionic strength are important parameters that govern the measured rising velocity for protein solutions. A general theoretical description of rising bubbles in surfactant and protein solutions is not available at present due to the complex situation of the adsorption process at a bubble surface in a liquid flow field with simultaneous Marangoni effects. However, instead of modelling the complete velocity profile, new theoretical work has been started to evaluate the maximum values in the profile as characteristic parameter for dynamic adsorption layers at the bubble surface more quantitatively.
The studies with protein-surfactant mixtures demonstrate in an impressive way that the complexes formed by the two compounds change the surface activity as compared to the original native protein molecules and therefore lead to a completely different retardation behavior of rising bubbles. Changes in the velocity profile can be interpreted qualitatively in terms of increased or decreased surface activity of the formed protein-surfactant complexes. It was also observed that the pH and ionic strength of a protein solution have strong effects on the surface activity of the protein molecules, which however, could be different on the rising bubble velocity and the equilibrium adsorption isotherms. These differences are not fully understood yet but give rise to discussions about the structure of protein adsorption layer under dynamic conditions or in the equilibrium state.
The third main stage of the discussed process of fractionation is the formation and characterization of protein foams from BLG solutions at different pH and ionic strength. Of course a minimum BLG concentration is required to form foams. This minimum protein concentration is a function again of solution pH and ionic strength, i.e. of the surface activity of the protein molecules. Although at the isoelectric point, at about pH 5 for BLG, the hydrophobicity and hence the surface activity should be the highest, the concentration and ionic strength effects on the rising velocity profile as well as on the foamability and foam stability do not show a maximum. This is another remarkable argument for the fact that the interfacial structure and behavior of BLG layers under dynamic conditions and at equilibrium are rather different. These differences are probably caused by the time required for BLG molecules to adapt respective conformations once they are adsorbed at the surface.
All bubble studies described in this work refer to stages of the foam fractionation process. Experiments with different systems, mainly surfactant and protein solutions, were performed in order to form foams and finally recover a solution representing the foamed material. As foam consists to a large extent of foam lamella – two adsorption layers with a liquid core – the concentration in a foamate taken from foaming experiments should be enriched in the stabilizing molecules. For determining the concentration of the foamate, again the very sensitive bubble rising velocity profile method was applied, which works for any type of surface active materials. This also includes technical surfactants or protein isolates for which an accurate composition is unknown.
Die Universität Potsdam in sozioökonomischer Perspektive
- Universitäten erbringen wohlfahrtsfördernde Leistungen für die Gesellschaft, insbesondere indem sie Studierende ausbilden, über Forschung neues Wissen erzeugen sowie den Wissens- und Technologietransfer in Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft hinein betreiben. Die Erbringung dieser Leistungen wird ermöglicht durch eine größtenteils öffentliche Finanzierung, die nicht nur in Zeiten wirtschaftlicher Krisen und Spargebote gerne hinterfragt wird. Die Politik ist daher ebenso wie die Hochschulen gut beraten, die Mittelzuweisungen immer wieder neu zu legitimieren. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die sozioökonomischen Effekte der Universität Potsdam und schließt so vorhandene Informationslücken. Die Autoren zeigen, dass auch indirekte und unerwartete Effekte eine große Rolle spielen können, was die Wirkung einer Universität auf Wirtschaft und Wohlstand angeht.