## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

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Interpreting high-energy, astrophysical phenomena, such as supernova explosions or neutron-star collisions, requires a robust understanding of matter at supranuclear densities. However, our knowledge about dense matter explored in the cores of neutron stars remains limited. Fortunately, dense matter is not probed only in astrophysical observations, but also in terrestrial heavy-ion collision experiments. Here we use Bayesian inference to combine data from astrophysical multi-messenger observations of neutron stars(1-9) and from heavy-ion collisions of gold nuclei at relativistic energies(10,11) with microscopic nuclear theory calculations(12-17) to improve our understanding of dense matter. We find that the inclusion of heavy-ion collision data indicates an increase in the pressure in dense matter relative to previous analyses, shifting neutron-star radii towards larger values, consistent with recent observations by the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer mission(5-8,18). Our findings show that constraints from heavy-ion collision experiments show a remarkable consistency with multi-messenger observations and provide complementary information on nuclear matter at intermediate densities. This work combines nuclear theory, nuclear experiment and astrophysical observations, and shows how joint analyses can shed light on the properties of neutron-rich supranuclear matter over the density range probed in neutron stars.

Random logic networks
(2021)

We investigate dynamical properties of a quantum generalization of classical reversible Boolean networks. The state of each node is encoded as a single qubit, and classical Boolean logic operations are supplemented by controlled bit-flip and Hadamard operations. We consider synchronous updating schemes in which each qubit is updated at each step based on stored values of the qubits from the previous step. We investigate the periodic or quasiperiodic behavior of quantum networks, and we analyze the propagation of single site perturbations through the quantum networks with input degree one. A nonclassical mechanism for perturbation propagation leads to substantially different evolution of the Hamming distance between the original and perturbed states.

We apply the concepts of relative dimensions and mutual singularities to characterize the fractal properties of overlapping attractor and repeller in chaotic dynamical systems. We consider one analytically solvable example (a generalized baker's map); two other examples, the Anosov-Mobius and the Chirikov-Mobius maps, which possess fractal attractor and repeller on a two-dimensional torus, are explored numerically. We demonstrate that although for these maps the stable and unstable directions are not orthogonal to each other, the relative Renyi and Kullback-Leibler dimensions as well as the mutual singularity spectra for the attractor and repeller can be well approximated under orthogonality assumption of two fractals.

The fundamental sensitivity limit of atomic force microscopy is strongly correlated to the thermal noise of cantilever oscillation. A method to suppress this unwanted noise is to reduce the bandwidth of the measurement, but this approach is limited by the speed of the measurement and the width of the cantilever resonance, commonly defined through the quality factor Q. However, it has been shown that optomechanical resonances in interferometers might affect cantilever oscillations resulting in an effective quality factor Q(eff). When the laser power is sufficiently increased cantilever oscillations might even reach the regime of self-oscillation. In this self-oscillation state, the noise of the system is partially determined by the interaction with laser light far from equilibrium. Here, we show and discuss how tuning of laser power leads to nonlinear optomechanical effects that can dramatically increase the effective quality factor of the cantilever leading to out-of-equilibrium noise. We model the effects using a fourth order nonlinearity of the damping coefficient. Published under an exclusive license by AIP Publishing.

Data-driven expectations for electromagnetic counterpart searches based on LIGO/Virgo public alerts
(2022)

Searches for electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational-wave signals have redoubled since the first detection in 2017 of a binary neutron star merger with a gamma-ray burst, optical/infrared kilonova, and panchromatic afterglow. Yet, one LIGO/Virgo observing run later, there has not yet been a second, secure identification of an electromagnetic counterpart. This is not surprising given that the localization uncertainties of events in LIGO and Virgo's third observing run, O3, were much larger than predicted.
We explain this by showing that improvements in data analysis that now allow LIGO/Virgo to detect weaker and hence more poorly localized events have increased the overall number of detections, of which well-localized, gold-plated events make up a smaller proportion overall.
We present simulations of the next two LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA observing runs, O4 and O5, that are grounded in the statistics of O3 public alerts. To illustrate the significant impact that the updated predictions can have, we study the follow-up strategy for the Zwicky Transient Facility. Realistic and timely forecasting of gravitational-wave localization accuracy is paramount given the large commitments of telescope time and the need to prioritize which events are followed up.
We include a data release of our simulated localizations as a public proposal planning resource for astronomers.

Saturn is permanently surrounded by 6 discrete proton radiation belts that are rigidly separated by the orbits of its inner moons and dense rings. These radiation belts are ideal environments to study the details of radial diffusion and the CRAND source process, yet progress has been hindered by the fact that the energy spectra are not known with certainty: Reanalysis of the response functions of the LEMMS instrument on-board the Cassini orbiter has shown that measurements of less than or similar to 10 MeV protons may be easily contaminated by greater than or similar to 10 MeV protons and that many available measurements characterize a very broad energy range, so that the calculation of an energy-resolved spectrum is not as straightforward as previously assumed. Here we use forward modeling of the measurements based on the instrument response and combine this technique where useful with numerical modeling of the proton belt physics in order to determine Saturn's spectra with higher certainty. We find significant proton intensities up to approximate to 1 GeV. While earlier studies reported on proton spectra roughly following a power law with exponent approximate to -2, our more advanced analysis shows harder spectra with exponent approximate to -1. The observed spectra provide independent confirmation that Saturn's proton belts are sourced by CRAND and are consistent with the provided protons being subsequently cooled in the tenuous gas originating from Saturn or Enceladus. The intensities at Saturn are found to be lower than at Jupiter and Earth, which is also consistent with the source of Saturn being exclusively CRAND, while the other planets can draw from additional processes. Our new spectra can be used in the future to further our understanding of Saturn's proton belts and the respective physical processes that occur at other magnetized planets in general. Also, the spectra have applications for several topics of planetary science, such as space weathering of Saturn's moons and rings, and can be useful to constrain properties of the main rings through their production of secondary particles.

Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, we have obtained ultraviolet spectra from similar to 1200 to 2000 angstrom of known Lyman continuum (LyC) emitting galaxies at low redshift (z similar to 0.3-0.4) with varying absolute LyC escape fractions ( f(esc) similar to 0.01-0.72). Our observations include in particular the galaxy J1243+4646, which has the highest known LyC escape fraction at low redshift. While all galaxies are known Lyman alpha emitters, we consistently detect an inventory of additional emission lines, including C IV lambda 1550, He II lambda 1640, O III] lambda 1666, and C III] lambda 1909, whose origin is presumably essentially nebular. C IV lambda 1550 emission is detected above 4 sigma in six out of eight galaxies, with equivalent widths of EW(C IV) = 12-15 angstrom for two galaxies, which exceeds the previously reported maximum emission in low-z star-forming galaxies. We detect C IV lambda 1550 emission in all LyC emitters with escape fractions f(esc) > 0.1 and find a tentative increase in the flux ratio C IV lambda 1550 /C III] lambda 1909 with f(esc). Based on the data, we propose a new criterion to select and classify strong leakers (galaxies with f(esc) > 0.1): C IV lambda 1550 /C III] lambda 1909 greater than or similar to 0.75. Finally, we also find He II lambda 1640 emission in all the strong leakers with equivalent widths from 3 to 8 angstrom rest frame. These are among the highest values observed in star-forming galaxies and are primarily due to a high rate of ionizing photon production. The nebular He II lambda 1640 emission of the strong LyC emitters does not require harder ionizing spectra at >54 eV compared to those of typical star-forming galaxies at similarly low metallicity.

Comets evolve due to sublimation of ices embedded inside porous dust, triggering dust emission (that is, erosion) followed by mass loss, mass redistribution and surface modifications. Surface changes were revealed by the Deep Impact and Stardust NExT missions for comet 9P/Tempel 1 (ref.(1)), and a full inventory of the processes modifying cometary nuclei was provided by Rosetta while it escorted comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for approximately two years(2-4). Such observations also showed puzzling water-ice-rich spots that stood out as patches optically brighter and spectrally bluer than the average cometary surfaces(5-9). These are up to tens of metres large and indicate macroscopic compositional dishomogeneities apparently in contrast with the structural homogeneity above centimetre scales of pebble-made nuclei(10). Here we show that the occurrence of blue patches determines the seasonal variability of the nucleus colour(4,11,12) and gives insight into the internal structure of comets. We define a new model that links the centimetre-sized pebbles composing the nucleus(10) and driving cometary activity(13,14) to metre-sized water-ice-enriched blocks embedded in a drier matrix. The emergence of blue patches is due to the matrix erosion driven by CO2-ice sublimation that exposes the water-ice-enriched blocks, which in turn are eroded by water-ice sublimation when exposed to sunlight. Our model explains the observed seasonal evolution of the nucleus and reconciles the available data at micro (sub-centimetre) and macro (metre) scales.

Stochastic resetting, a diffusive process whose amplitude is reset to the origin at random times, is a vividly studied strategy to optimize encounter dynamics, e.g., in chemical reactions. Here we generalize the resetting step by introducing a random resetting amplitude such that the diffusing particle may be only partially reset towards the trajectory origin or even overshoot the origin in a resetting step. We introduce different scenarios for the random-amplitude stochastic resetting process and discuss the resulting dynamics. Direct applications are geophysical layering (stratigraphy) and population dynamics or financial markets, as well as generic search processes.

Comb-like geometric constraints leading to emergence of the time-fractional Schrödinger equation
(2021)

This paper presents an overview over several examples, where the comb-like geometric constraints lead to emergence of the time-fractional Schrodinger equation. Motion of a quantum object on a comb structure is modeled by a suitable modification of the kinetic energy operator, obtained by insertion of the Dirac delta function in the Laplacian. First, we consider motion of a free particle on two- and three-dimensional comb structures, and then we extend the study to the interacting cases. A general form of a nonlocal term, which describes the interactions of the particle with the medium, is included in the Hamiltonian, and later on, the cases of constant and Dirac delta potentials are analyzed. At the end, we discuss the case of non-integer dimensions, considering separately the case of fractal dimension between one and two, and the case of fractal dimension between two and three. All these examples show that even though we are starting with the standard time-dependent Schrodinger equation on a comb, the time-fractional equation for the Green's functions appears, due to these specific geometric constraints.