## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

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A double-layer transcrystalline polypropylene (PP) film with a flat central interface layer between its two transcrystalline layers is obtained by recrystallization from the melt between two polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces on both sides of the PP film. Its electret properties are studied and compared with those of a single-layer transcrystalline PP film re-crystallized in contact with only one PTFE surface. Within experimental uncertainty, the two types of transcrystalline films exhibit the same thermal properties and crystallinities. After thermal poling, however, two hetero-charge layers of opposite polarity are found on the internal interfaces of the double-layer transcrystalline films and may together be considered as micrometer-sized dipoles. The unexpected phenomenon does not occur in single-layer transcrystalline samples without a central interface layer, suggesting that the interfaces between the transcrystalline layers and the micrometer-thick central interface layer may be the origin of deeper traps rather than the crystalline structures in the transcrystallites or the spherulites. The origin of the interfacial charges was also studied by means of an injection-blocking charging method, which revealed that intrinsic charge carriers introduced during recrystallization are most likely responsible for the interfacial charges. It is fascinating that a material as familiar as PP can exhibit such intriguing properties with a special bipolar space-charge polarization across the central interface layer after quasi-epitaxial surface moulding into a double-layer transcrystalline form. In addition to applications in electret (micro-)devices for electro-mechanical transduction, the highly ordered structures may also be employed as a new paradigm for studying charge storage and transport in polymer electrets and in dielectrics for DC electrical insulation.

Three-component molecular brushes with a polyimide backbone and amphiphilic block copolymer side chains with different contents of the "inner" hydrophilic (poly(methacrylic acid)) and "outer" hydrophobic (poly(methyl methacrylate)) blocks were synthesized and characterized by molecular hydrodynamics and optics methods in solutions of chloroform, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran and ethanol. The peculiarity of the studied polymers is the amphiphilic structure of the grafted chains. The molar masses of the molecular brushes were determined by static and dynamic light scattering in chloroform in which polymers form molecularly disperse solutions. Spontaneous self-assembly of macromolecules was detected in dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran and ethanol. The aggregates size depended on the thermodynamic quality of the solvent as well as on the macromolecular architectural parameters. In dimethylformamide and tetrahydrofuran, the distribution of hydrodynamic radii of aggregates was bimodal, while in ethanol, it was unimodal. Moreover, in ethanol, an increase in the poly(methyl methacrylate) content caused a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of aggregates. A significant difference in the nature of the blocks included in the brushes determines the selectivity of the used solvents, since their thermodynamic quality with respect to the blocks is different. The macromolecules of the studied graft copolymers tend to self-organization in selective solvents with formation of a core-shell structure with an insoluble solvophobic core surrounded by the solvophilic shell of side chains.

The quantitative analysis of microstructural features is a key to understanding the micromechanical behavior of metal matrix composites (MMCs), which is a premise for their use in practice. Herein, a 3D microstructural characterization of a five-phase MMC is performed by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (SXCT). A workflow for advanced deep learning-based segmentation of all individual phases in SXCT data is shown using a fully convolutional neural network with U-net architecture. High segmentation accuracy is achieved with a small amount of training data. This enables extracting unprecedently precise microstructural parameters (e.g., volume fractions and particle shapes) to be input, e.g., in micromechanical models.

Spin precession in magnetic materials is commonly modelled with the classical phenomenological Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. Based on a quantized three-dimensional spin + environment Hamiltonian, we here derive a spin operator equation of motion that describes precession and includes a general form of damping that consistently accounts for memory, coloured noise and quantum statistics. The LLG equation is recovered as its classical, Ohmic approximation. We further introduce resonant Lorentzian system-reservoir couplings that allow a systematic comparison of dynamics between Ohmic and non-Ohmic regimes. Finally, we simulate the full non-Markovian dynamics of a spin in the semi-classical limit. At low temperatures, our numerical results demonstrate a characteristic reduction and flattening of the steady state spin alignment with an external field, caused by the quantum statistics of the environment. The results provide a powerful framework to explore general three-dimensional dissipation in quantum thermodynamics.

Discrete element modeling of boulder and cliff morphologies on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
(2020)

Context:
Even after the Rosetta mission, some of the mechanical parameters of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's surface material are not yet well constrained. These parameters are needed to improve our understanding of cometary activity or for planning sample return missions.
Aims:
We study some of the physical processes involved in the formation of selected surface features and investigate the mechanical and geometrical parameters involved.
Methods:
Applying the discrete element method (DEM) in a low-gravity environment, we numerically simulated the surface layer particle dynamics involved in the formation of selected morphological features. The material considered is a mixture of polydisperse ice and dust spheres with inter-particle forces given by the Hertz contact model, translational friction, rolling friction, cohesion from unsintered contacts, and optionally due to bonds from ice sintering. We determined a working set of parameters that enables the simulations to be reasonably realistic and investigated morphological changes due to modifications thereof.
Results:
The selected morphological features are reasonably well reproduced using model materials with a tensile strength on the order of 1-10 Pa. Increasing the diameters of the spherical particles decreases the material strength, and increasing the friction leads to a more brittle but somewhat stronger material. High friction is required to make the material sufficiently brittle to match observations, which points to the presence of very rough, even angular particles. Reasonable seismic activity does not suffice to trigger the collapses of cliffs without material heterogeneities or structural defects.
Conclusions:
DEM modeling can be a powerful tool to investigate mechanical parameters of cometary surface material. However, many uncertainties arise from our limited understanding of particle shapes, spatial configurations, and size distributions, all on multiple length scales. Further numerical work, in situ measurements, and sample return missions are needed to better understand the mechanics of cometary material and cometary activity.

We construct an expression for the Green function of a differential operator satisfying nonlocal, homogeneous boundary conditions starting from the fundamental solution of the differential operator. This also provides the solution to the boundary value problem of an inhomogeneous partial differential equation with inhomogeneous, nonlocal boundary conditions. The construction applies for a broad class of linear partial differential equations and linear boundary conditions.

We study properties of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) eigenmodes by decomposing the data of MHD simulations into linear MHD modes-namely, the Alfven, slow magnetosonic, and fast magnetosonic modes. We drive turbulence with a mixture of solenoidal and compressive driving while varying the Alfven Mach number (M-A), plasma beta, and the sonic Mach number from subsonic to transsonic. We find that the proportion of fast and slow modes in the mode mixture increases with increasing compressive forcing. This proportion of the magnetosonic modes can also become the dominant fraction in the mode mixture. The anisotropy of the modes is analyzed by means of their structure functions. The Alfven-mode anisotropy is consistent with the Goldreich-Sridhar theory. We find a transition from weak to strong Alfvenic turbulence as we go from low to high M-A. The slow-mode properties are similar to the Alfven mode. On the other hand, the isotropic nature of fast modes is verified in the cases where the fast mode is a significant fraction of the mode mixture. The fast-mode behavior does not show any transition in going from low to high M-A. We find indications that there is some interaction between the different modes, and the properties of the dominant mode can affect the properties of the weaker modes. This work identifies the conditions under which magnetosonic modes can be a major fraction of turbulent astrophysical plasmas, including the regime of weak turbulence. Important astrophysical implications for cosmic-ray transport and magnetic reconnection are discussed.

Context:
Gyrochronology allows the derivation of ages for cool main sequence stars based on their observed rotation periods and masses, or a suitable proxy thereof. It is increasingly well-explored for FGK stars, but requires further measurements for older ages and K - M-type stars.
Aims:
We study the 2.7 Gyr-old open cluster Ruprecht 147 to compare it with the previously-studied, but far more distant, NGC 6819 cluster, and especially to measure cooler stars than was previously possible there.
Methods:
We constructed an inclusive list of 102 cluster members from prior work, including Gaia DR2, and for which light curves were also obtained during Campaign 7 of the Kepler/K2 space mission. We placed them in the cluster color-magnitude diagram and checked the related information against appropriate isochrones. The light curves were then corrected for data systematics using Principal Component Analysis on all observed K2 C07 stars and subsequently subjected to periodicity analysis.
Results:
Periodic signals are found for 32 stars, 21 of which are considered to be both highly reliable and to represent single, or effectively single, Ru 147 stars. These stars cover the spectral types from late-F to mid-M stars, and they have periods ranging from 6 d - 33 d, allowing for a comparison of Ruprecht 147 to both other open clusters and to models of rotational spindown. The derived rotation periods connect reasonably to, overlap with, and extend to lower masses the known rotation period distribution of the 2.5 Gyr-old cluster NGC 6819.
Conclusions:
The data confirm that cool stars lie on a single surface in rotation period-mass-age space, and they simultaneously challenge its commonly assumed shape. The shape at the low mass region of the color-period diagram at the age of Ru 147 favors a recently-proposed model which requires a third mass-dependent timescale in addition to the two timescales required by a former model, suggesting that a third physical process is required to model rotating stars effectively.

High diffusion-sensitizing magnetic field gradients have been more and more often applied nowadays to achieve a better characterization of the microstructure. As the resulting spin-echo signal significantly deviates from the conventional Gaussian form, various models have been employed to interpret these deviations and to relate them with the microstructural properties of a sample. In this paper, we argue that the non-Gaussian behavior of the signal is a generic universal feature of the Bloch-Torrey equation. We provide a simple yet rigorous description of the localization regime emerging at high extended gradients and identify its origin as a symmetry breaking at the reflecting boundary. We compare the consequent non-Gaussian signal decay to other diffusion NMR regimes such as slow-diffusion, motional-narrowing and diffusion-diffraction regimes. We emphasize limitations of conventional perturbative techniques and advocate for non-perturbative approaches which may pave a way to new imaging modalities in this field.

The Cattaneo or telegrapher's equation describes the crossover from initial ballistic to normal diffusion. Here we study and survey time-fractional generalisations of this equation that are shown to produce the crossover of the mean squared displacement from superdiffusion to subdiffusion. Conditional solutions are derived in terms of Fox H-functions and the dth-order moments as well as the diffusive flux of the different models are derived. Moreover, the concept of the distribution-like is proposed as an alternative to the probability density function.