## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

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We employ Bayesian statistics using the nested-sampling algorithm to compare and rank multiple models of ergodic diffusion (including anomalous diffusion) as well as to assess their optimal parameters for in silico-generated and real time-series. We focus on the recently-introduced model of Brownian motion with "diffusing diffusivity'-giving rise to widely-observed non-Gaussian displacement statistics-and its comparison to Brownian and fractional Brownian motion, also for the time-series with some measurement noise. We conduct this model-assessment analysis using Bayesian statistics and the nested-sampling algorithm on the level of individual particle trajectories. We evaluate relative model probabilities and compute best-parameter sets for each diffusion model, comparing the estimated parameters to the true ones. We test the performance of the nested-sampling algorithm and its predictive power both for computer-generated (idealised) trajectories as well as for real single-particle-tracking trajectories. Our approach delivers new important insight into the objective selection of the most suitable stochastic model for a given time-series. We also present first model-ranking results in application to experimental data of tracer diffusion in polymer-based hydrogels.

The velocity distribution function of granular gases in the homogeneous cooling state as well as some heated granular gases decays for large velocities as f proportional to exp(-const x nu). That is, its high-energy tail is overpopulated as compared with the Maxwell distribution. At the present time, there is no theory to describe the influence of the tail on the kinetic characteristics of granular gases. We develop an approach to quantify the overpopulated tail and analyze its impact on granular gas properties, in particular on the cooling coefficient. We observe and explain anomalously slow relaxation of the velocity distribution function to its steady state.

This paper discusses translocation features of the 20S proteasome in order to explain typical proteasome length distributions. We assume that the protein transport depends significantly on the fragment length with some optimal length which is transported most efficiently. By means of a simple one-channel model, we show that this hypothesis can explain both the one- and the three-peak length distributions found in experiments. A possible mechanism of such translocation is provided by so-called fluctuation-driven transport.

Archival X-ray spectra of the four prominent single, non-magnetic O stars zeta Pup, zeta Ori, xi Per and zeta Oph, obtained in high resolution with Chandra HETGS/MEG have been studied. The resolved X-ray emission line profiles provide information about the shocked, hot gas which emits the X-radiation, and about the bulk of comparably cool stellar wind material which partly absorbs this radiation. In this paper, we synthesize X-ray line profiles with a model of a clumpy stellar wind. We find that the geometrical shape of the wind inhomogeneities is important: better agreement with the observations can be achieved with radially compressed clumps than with spherical clumps. The parameters of the model, i.e. chemical abundances, stellar radius, mass-loss rate and terminal wind velocity, are taken from existing analyses of UV and optical spectra of the programme stars. On this basis, we also calculate the continuum-absorption coefficient of the cool-wind material, using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (POWR) model atmosphere code. The radial location of X-ray emitting gas is restricted from analysing the FIR line ratios of helium-like ions. The only remaining free parameter of our model is the typical distance between the clumps; here, we assume that at any point in the wind there is one clump passing by per one dynamical time-scale of the wind. The total emission in a model line is scaled to the observation. There is a good agreement between synthetic and observed line profiles. We conclude that the X-ray emission line profiles in O stars can be explained by hot plasma embedded in a cool wind which is highly clumped in the form of radially compressed shell fragments.

Context. Very massive stars pass through the Wolf-Rayet (WR) stage before they finally explode. Details of their evolution have not yet been safely established, and their physics are not well understood. Their spectral analysis requires adequate model atmospheres, which have been developed step by step during the past decades and account in their recent version for line blanketing by the millions of lines from iron and iron-group elements. However, only very few WN stars have been re-analyzed by means of line-blanketed models yet. Aims. The quantitative spectral analysis of a large sample of Galactic WN stars with the most advanced generation of model atmospheres should provide an empirical basis for various studies about the origin, evolution, and physics of the Wolf-Rayet stars and their powerful winds. Methods. We analyze a large sample of Galactic WN stars by means of the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmospheres, which account for iron line blanketing and clumping. The results are compared with a synthetic population, generated from the Geneva tracks for massive star evolution. Results. We obtain a homogeneous set of stellar and atmospheric parameters for the GalacticWN stars, partly revising earlier results. Conclusions. Comparing the results of our spectral analyses of the Galactic WN stars with the predictions of the Geneva evolutionary calculations, we conclude that there is rough qualitative agreement. However, the quantitative discrepancies are still severe, and there is no preference for the tracks that account for the effects of rotation. It seems that the evolution of massive stars is still not satisfactorily understood.

We demonstrate that a multiple delayed feedback is a powerful tool to control coherence properties of autonomous self-sustained oscillators. We derive the equation for the phase dynamics in presence of noise and delay, and analyze it analytically. In Gaussian approximation a closed set of equations for the frequency and the diffusion constant is obtained. Solutions of these equations are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations.

It is shown that several polymers can form insoluble interfacial layers on a poly (ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer after annealing of the double-layer structure. The thickness of the interlayer is dependent on the characteristics of the underlying PEDOT.PSS and the molecular weight of the polymers. It is further shown that the electronic structures of the interlayer polymers have a significant effect on the properties of red-light-emitting polymer-based electrophosphorescent devices. Upon increasing the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital positions, a significant increase in current density and device efficiency is observed. This is attributed to efficient blocking of electrons in combination with direct injection of holes from the interlayer to the phosphorescent dye. Upon proper choice of the interlayer polymer, efficient red, polymer-based electrophosphorescent devices with a peak luminance efficiency of 5.5 cd A(-1) (external quantum efficiency = 6 %) and a maximum power-conversion efficiency of 5 Im W-1 can be realized.

If not oriented perfectly isotropically, the strong dipole moment of polar organic semiconductor materials such as tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum (Alq3) will lead to the buildup of a giant surface potential (GSP) and thus to a macroscopic dielectric polarization of the organic film. Despite this having been a known fact for years, the implications of such high potentials within an organic layer stack have only been studied recently. In this work, the influence of the GSP on hole injection into organic layers is investigated. Therefore, we apply a concept called dipolar doping to devices consisting of the prototypical organic materials N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) as nonpolar host and Alq3 as dipolar dopant with different mixing ratios to tune the GSP. The mixtures are investigated in single-layer monopolar devices as well as bilayer metal/insulator/semiconductor structures. Characterization is done electrically using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, impedance spectroscopy, and charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage and time of flight, as well as with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. We find a maximum in device performance for moderate to low doping concentrations of the polar species in the host. The observed behavior can be described on the basis of the Schottky effect for image-force barrier lowering, if the changes in the interface dipole, the carrier mobility, and the GSP induced by dipolar doping are taken into account.