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Conventional embeddings of the edge-graphs of Platonic polyhedra, {f,z}, where f,z denote the number of edges in each face and the edge-valence at each vertex, respectively, are untangled in that they can be placed on a sphere (S-2) such that distinct edges do not intersect, analogous to unknotted loops, which allow crossing-free drawings of S-1 on the sphere. The most symmetric (flag-transitive) realizations of those polyhedral graphs are those of the classical Platonic polyhedra, whose symmetries are *2fz, according to Conway's two-dimensional (2D) orbifold notation (equivalent to Schonflies symbols I-h, O-h, and T-d). Tangled Platonic {f,z} polyhedra-which cannot lie on the sphere without edge-crossings-are constructed as windings of helices with three, five, seven,... strands on multigenus surfaces formed by tubifying the edges of conventional Platonic polyhedra, have (chiral) symmetries 2fz (I, O, and T), whose vertices, edges, and faces are symmetrically identical, realized with two flags. The analysis extends to the "theta(z)" polyhedra, {2,z}. The vertices of these symmetric tangled polyhedra overlap with those of the Platonic polyhedra; however, their helicity requires curvilinear (or kinked) edges in all but one case. We show that these 2fz polyhedral tangles are maximally symmetric; more symmetric embeddings are necessarily untangled. On one hand, their topologies are very constrained: They are either self-entangled graphs (analogous to knots) or mutually catenated entangled compound polyhedra (analogous to links). On the other hand, an endless variety of entanglements can be realized for each topology. Simpler examples resemble patterns observed in synthetic organometallic materials and clathrin coats in vivo.

Let M be a compact manifold of dimension n. In this paper, we introduce the Mass Function a >= 0 bar right arrow X-+(M)(a) (resp. a >= 0 bar right arrow X--(M)(a)) which is defined as the supremum (resp. infimum) of the masses of all metrics on M whose Yamabe constant is larger than a and which are flat on a ball of radius 1 and centered at a point p is an element of M. Here, the mass of a metric flat around p is the constant term in the expansion of the Green function of the conformal Laplacian at p. We show that these functions are well defined and have many properties which allow to obtain applications to the Yamabe invariant (i.e. the supremum of Yamabe constants over the set of all metrics on M).

We present a technique for the enumeration of all isotopically distinct ways of tiling a hyperbolic surface of finite genus, possibly nonorientable and with punctures and boundary. This generalizes the enumeration using Delaney--Dress combinatorial tiling theory of combinatorial classes of tilings to isotopy classes of tilings. To accomplish this, we derive an action of the mapping class group of the orbifold associated to the symmetry group of a tiling on the set of tilings. We explicitly give descriptions and presentations of semipure mapping class groups and of tilings as decorations on orbifolds. We apply this enumerative result to generate an array of isotopically distinct tilings of the hyperbolic plane with symmetries generated by rotations that are commensurate with the threedimensional symmetries of the primitive, diamond, and gyroid triply periodic minimal surfaces, which have relevance to a variety of physical systems.

We prove a Feynman path integral formula for the unitary group exp(-itL(nu,theta)), t >= 0, associated with a discrete magnetic Schrodinger operator L-nu,L-theta on a large class of weighted infinite graphs. As a consequence, we get a new Kato-Simon estimate
vertical bar exp(- itL(nu,theta))(x,y)vertical bar <= exp( -tL(-deg,0))(x,y),
which controls the unitary group uniformly in the potentials in terms of a Schrodinger semigroup, where the potential deg is the weighted degree function of the graph.

The canonical trace and the Wodzicki residue on classical pseudo-differential operators on a closed manifold are characterised by their locality and shown to be preserved under lifting to the universal covering as a result of their local feature. As a consequence, we lift a class of spectral zeta-invariants using lifted defect formulae which express discrepancies of zeta-regularised traces in terms of Wodzicki residues. We derive Atiyah's L-2-index theorem as an instance of the Z(2)-graded generalisation of the canonical lift of spectral zeta-invariants and we show that certain lifted spectral zeta-invariants for geometric operators are integrals of Pontryagin and Chern forms.

An explicit Dobrushin uniqueness region for Gibbs point processes with repulsive interactions
(2022)

We present a uniqueness result for Gibbs point processes with interactions that come from a non-negative pair potential; in particular, we provide an explicit uniqueness region in terms of activity z and inverse temperature beta. The technique used relies on applying to the continuous setting the classical Dobrushin criterion. We also present a comparison to the two other uniqueness methods of cluster expansion and disagreement percolation, which can also be applied for this type of interaction.

Interacting particle solutions of Fokker–Planck equations through gradient–log–density estimation
(2020)

Fokker-Planck equations are extensively employed in various scientific fields as they characterise the behaviour of stochastic systems at the level of probability density functions. Although broadly used, they allow for analytical treatment only in limited settings, and often it is inevitable to resort to numerical solutions. Here, we develop a computational approach for simulating the time evolution of Fokker-Planck solutions in terms of a mean field limit of an interacting particle system. The interactions between particles are determined by the gradient of the logarithm of the particle density, approximated here by a novel statistical estimator. The performance of our method shows promising results, with more accurate and less fluctuating statistics compared to direct stochastic simulations of comparable particle number. Taken together, our framework allows for effortless and reliable particle-based simulations of Fokker-Planck equations in low and moderate dimensions. The proposed gradient-log-density estimator is also of independent interest, for example, in the context of optimal control.

In the limit (h) over bar -> 0, we analyze a class of Schrödinger operators H-(h) over bar = (h) over bar L-2 + (h) over barW + V .id(epsilon) acting on sections of a vector bundle epsilon over a Riemannian manifold M where L is a Laplace type operator, W is an endomorphism field and the potential energy V has a non-degenerate minimum at some point p is an element of M. We construct quasimodes of WKB-type near p for eigenfunctions associated with the low-lying eigenvalues of H-(h) over bar. These are obtained from eigenfunctions of the associated harmonic oscillator H-p,H-(h) over bar at p, acting on smooth functions on the tangent space.

Author summary <br /> The use of orally inhaled drugs for treating lung diseases is appealing since they have the potential for lung selectivity, i.e. high exposure at the site of action -the lung- without excessive side effects. However, the degree of lung selectivity depends on a large number of factors, including physiochemical properties of drug molecules, patient disease state, and inhalation devices. To predict the impact of these factors on drug exposure and thereby to understand the characteristics of an optimal drug for inhalation, we develop a predictive mathematical framework (a "pharmacokinetic model"). In contrast to previous approaches, our model allows combining knowledge from different sources appropriately and its predictions were able to adequately predict different sets of clinical data. Finally, we compare the impact of different factors and find that the most important factors are the size of the inhaled particles, the affinity of the drug to the lung tissue, as well as the rate of drug dissolution in the lung. In contrast to the common belief, the solubility of a drug in the lining fluids is not found to be relevant. These findings are important to understand how inhaled drugs should be designed to achieve best treatment results in patients. <br /> The fate of orally inhaled drugs is determined by pulmonary pharmacokinetic processes such as particle deposition, pulmonary drug dissolution, and mucociliary clearance. Even though each single process has been systematically investigated, a quantitative understanding on the interaction of processes remains limited and therefore identifying optimal drug and formulation characteristics for orally inhaled drugs is still challenging. To investigate this complex interplay, the pulmonary processes can be integrated into mathematical models. However, existing modeling attempts considerably simplify these processes or are not systematically evaluated against (clinical) data. In this work, we developed a mathematical framework based on physiologically-structured population equations to integrate all relevant pulmonary processes mechanistically. A tailored numerical resolution strategy was chosen and the mechanistic model was evaluated systematically against data from different clinical studies. Without adapting the mechanistic model or estimating kinetic parameters based on individual study data, the developed model was able to predict simultaneously (i) lung retention profiles of inhaled insoluble particles, (ii) particle size-dependent pharmacokinetics of inhaled monodisperse particles, (iii) pharmacokinetic differences between inhaled fluticasone propionate and budesonide, as well as (iv) pharmacokinetic differences between healthy volunteers and asthmatic patients. Finally, to identify the most impactful optimization criteria for orally inhaled drugs, the developed mechanistic model was applied to investigate the impact of input parameters on both the pulmonary and systemic exposure. Interestingly, the solubility of the inhaled drug did not have any relevant impact on the local and systemic pharmacokinetics. Instead, the pulmonary dissolution rate, the particle size, the tissue affinity, and the systemic clearance were the most impactful potential optimization parameters. In the future, the developed prediction framework should be considered a powerful tool for identifying optimal drug and formulation characteristics.