## 60-XX PROBABILITY THEORY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESSES (For additional applications, see 11Kxx, 62-XX, 90-XX, 91-XX, 92-XX, 93-XX, 94-XX)

### Refine

#### Has Fulltext

- yes (6)

#### Document Type

- Doctoral Thesis (4)
- Conference Proceeding (1)
- Master's Thesis (1)

#### Is part of the Bibliography

- yes (6)

#### Keywords

- Cluster expansion (1)
- Cluster-Expansion (1)
- Corona (1)
- Covid-19 (1)
- DLR equations (1)
- DLR-Gleichungen (1)
- Dobrushin criterion (1)
- Dobrushin-Kriterium (1)
- Entropiemethode (1)
- Entropy method (1)

#### Institute

- Institut für Mathematik (6)
- Extern (1)

The echo chamber model describes the development of groups in heterogeneous social networks. By heterogeneous social network we mean a set of individuals, each of whom represents exactly one opinion. The existing relationships between individuals can then be represented by a graph. The echo chamber model is a time-discrete model which, like a board game, is played in rounds. In each round, an existing relationship is randomly and uniformly selected from the network and the two connected individuals interact. If the opinions of the individuals involved are sufficiently similar, they continue to move closer together in their opinions, whereas in the case of opinions that are too far apart, they break off their relationship and one of the individuals seeks a new relationship. In this paper we examine the building blocks of this model. We start from the observation that changes in the structure of relationships in the network can be described by a system of interacting particles in a more abstract space.
These reflections lead to the definition of a new abstract graph that encompasses all possible relational configurations of the social network. This provides us with the geometric understanding necessary to analyse the dynamic components of the echo chamber model in Part III. As a first step, in Part 7, we leave aside the opinions of the inidividuals and assume that the position of the edges changes with each move as described above, in order to obtain a basic understanding of the underlying dynamics. Using Markov chain theory, we find upper bounds on the speed of convergence of an associated Markov chain to its unique stationary distribution and show that there are mutually identifiable networks that are not apparent in the dynamics under analysis, in the sense that the stationary distribution of the associated Markov chain gives equal weight to these networks.
In the reversible cases, we focus in particular on the explicit form of the stationary distribution as well as on the lower bounds of the Cheeger constant to describe the convergence speed.
The final result of Section 8, based on absorbing Markov chains, shows that in a reduced version of the echo chamber model, a hierarchical structure of the number of conflicting relations can be identified.
We can use this structure to determine an upper bound on the expected absorption time, using a quasi-stationary distribution. This hierarchy of structure also provides a bridge to classical theories of pure death processes. We conclude by showing how future research can exploit this link and by discussing the importance of the results as building blocks for a full theoretical understanding of the echo chamber model. Finally, Part IV presents a published paper on the birth-death process with partial catastrophe. The paper is based on the explicit calculation of the first moment of a catastrophe. This first part is entirely based on an analytical approach to second degree recurrences with linear coefficients. The convergence to 0 of the resulting sequence as well as the speed of convergence are proved. On the other hand, the determination of the upper bounds of the expected value of the population size as well as its variance and the difference between the determined upper bound and the actual value of the expected value. For these results we use almost exclusively the theory of ordinary nonlinear differential equations.

This thesis focuses on the study of marked Gibbs point processes, in particular presenting some results on their existence and uniqueness, with ideas and techniques drawn from different areas of statistical mechanics: the entropy method from large deviations theory, cluster expansion and the Kirkwood--Salsburg equations, the Dobrushin contraction principle and disagreement percolation.
We first present an existence result for infinite-volume marked Gibbs point processes. More precisely, we use the so-called entropy method (and large-deviation tools) to construct marked Gibbs point processes in R^d under quite general assumptions. In particular, the random marks belong to a general normed space S and are not bounded. Moreover, we allow for interaction functionals that may be unbounded and whose range is finite but random. The entropy method relies on showing that a family of finite-volume Gibbs point processes belongs to sequentially compact entropy level sets, and is therefore tight.
We then present infinite-dimensional Langevin diffusions, that we put in interaction via a Gibbsian description. In this setting, we are able to adapt the general result above to show the existence of the associated infinite-volume measure. We also study its correlation functions via cluster expansion techniques, and obtain the uniqueness of the Gibbs process for all inverse temperatures β and activities z below a certain threshold. This method relies in first showing that the correlation functions of the process satisfy a so-called Ruelle bound, and then using it to solve a fixed point problem in an appropriate Banach space. The uniqueness domain we obtain consists then of the model parameters z and β for which such a problem has exactly one solution.
Finally, we explore further the question of uniqueness of infinite-volume Gibbs point processes on R^d, in the unmarked setting. We present, in the context of repulsive interactions with a hard-core component, a novel approach to uniqueness by applying the discrete Dobrushin criterion to the continuum framework. We first fix a discretisation parameter a>0 and then study the behaviour of the uniqueness domain as a goes to 0. With this technique we are able to obtain explicit thresholds for the parameters z and β, which we then compare to existing results coming from the different methods of cluster expansion and disagreement percolation.
Throughout this thesis, we illustrate our theoretical results with various examples both from classical statistical mechanics and stochastic geometry.

Im Zuge der Covid-19 Pandemie werden zwei Werte täglich diskutiert: Die zuletzt gemeldete Zahl der neu Infizierten und die sogenannte Reproduktionsrate. Sie gibt wieder, wie viele weitere Menschen ein an Corona erkranktes Individuum im Durchschnitt ansteckt. Für die Schätzung dieses Wertes gibt es viele Möglichkeiten - auch das Robert Koch-Institut gibt in seinem täglichen Situationsbericht stets zwei R-Werte an: Einen 4-Tage-R-Wert und einen weniger schwankenden 7-Tage-R-Wert. Diese Arbeit soll eine weitere Möglichkeit vorstellen, einige Aspekte der Pandemie zu modellieren und die Reproduktionsrate zu schätzen.
In der ersten Hälfte der Arbeit werden die mathematischen Grundlagen vorgestellt, die man für die Modellierung benötigt. Hierbei wird davon ausgegangen, dass der Leser bereits ein Basisverständnis von stochastischen Prozessen hat. Im Abschnitt Grundlagen werden Verzweigungsprozesse mit einigen Beispielen eingeführt und die Ergebnisse aus diesem Themengebiet, die für diese Arbeit wichtig sind, präsentiert. Dabei gehen wir zuerst auf einfache Verzweigungsprozesse ein und erweitern diese dann auf Verzweigungsprozesse mit mehreren Typen. Um die Notation zu erleichtern, beschränken wir uns auf zwei Typen. Das Prinzip lässt sich aber auf eine beliebige Anzahl von Typen erweitern.
Vor allem soll die Wichtigkeit des Parameters λ herausgestellt werden. Dieser Wert kann als durchschnittliche Zahl von Nachfahren eines Individuums interpretiert werden und bestimmt die Dynamik des Prozesses über einen längeren Zeitraum. In der Anwendung auf die Pandemie hat der Parameter λ die gleiche Rolle wie die Reproduktionsrate R.
In der zweiten Hälfte dieser Arbeit stellen wir eine Anwendung der Theorie über Multitype Verzweigungsprozesse vor. Professor Yanev und seine Mitarbeiter modellieren in ihrer Veröffentlichung Branching stochastic processes as models of Covid-19 epidemic development die Ausbreitung des Corona Virus' über einen Verzweigungsprozess mit zwei Typen. Wir werden dieses Modell diskutieren und Schätzer daraus ableiten: Ziel ist es, die Reproduktionsrate zu ermitteln. Außerdem analysieren wir die Möglichkeiten, die Dunkelziffer (die Zahl nicht gemeldeter Krankheitsfälle) zu schätzen. Wir wenden die Schätzer auf die Zahlen von Deutschland an und werten diese schließlich aus.

The interdisciplinary workshop STOCHASTIC PROCESSES WITH APPLICATIONS IN THE NATURAL SCIENCES was held in Bogotá, at Universidad de los Andes from December 5 to December 9, 2016. It brought together researchers from Colombia, Germany, France, Italy, Ukraine, who communicated recent progress in the mathematical research related to stochastic processes with application in biophysics.
The present volume collects three of the four courses held at this meeting by Angelo Valleriani, Sylvie Rœlly and Alexei Kulik.
A particular aim of this collection is to inspire young scientists in setting up research goals within the wide scope of fields represented in this volume.
Angelo Valleriani, PhD in high energy physics, is group leader of the team "Stochastic processes in complex and biological systems" from the Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam.
Sylvie Rœlly, Docteur en Mathématiques, is the head of the chair of Probability at the University of Potsdam.
Alexei Kulik, Doctor of Sciences, is a Leading researcher at the Institute of Mathematics of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

In this thesis, stochastic dynamics modelling collective motions of populations, one of the most mysterious type of biological phenomena, are considered. For a system of N particle-like individuals, two kinds of asymptotic behaviours are studied : ergodicity and flocking properties, in long time, and propagation of chaos, when the number N of agents goes to infinity. Cucker and Smale, deterministic, mean-field kinetic model for a population without a hierarchical structure is the starting point of our journey : the first two chapters are dedicated to the understanding of various stochastic dynamics it inspires, with random noise added in different ways. The third chapter, an attempt to improve those results, is built upon the cluster expansion method, a technique from statistical mechanics. Exponential ergodicity is obtained for a class of non-Markovian process with non-regular drift. In the final part, the focus shifts onto a stochastic system of interacting particles derived from Keller and Segel 2-D parabolicelliptic model for chemotaxis. Existence and weak uniqueness are proven.

In this thesis we study reciprocal classes of Markov chains. Given a continuous time Markov chain on a countable state space, acting as reference dynamics, the associated reciprocal class is the set of all probability measures on path space that can be written as a mixture of its bridges. These processes possess a conditional independence property that generalizes the Markov property, and evolved from an idea of Schrödinger, who wanted to obtain a probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Associated to a reciprocal class is a set of reciprocal characteristics, which are space-time functions that determine the reciprocal class. We compute explicitly these characteristics, and divide them into two main families: arc characteristics and cycle characteristics. As a byproduct, we obtain an explicit criterion to check when two different Markov chains share their bridges.
Starting from the characteristics we offer two different descriptions of the reciprocal class, including its non-Markov probabilities.
The first one is based on a pathwise approach and the second one on short time asymptotic. With the first approach one produces a family of functional equations whose only solutions are precisely the elements of the reciprocal class. These equations are integration by parts on path space associated with derivative operators which perturb the paths by mean of the addition of random loops. Several geometrical tools are employed to construct such formulas. The problem of obtaining sharp characterizations is also considered, showing some interesting connections with discrete geometry. Examples of such formulas are given in the framework of counting processes and random walks on Abelian groups, where the set of loops has a group structure.
In addition to this global description, we propose a second approach by looking at the short time behavior of a reciprocal process. In the same way as the Markov property and short time expansions of transition probabilities characterize Markov chains, we show that a reciprocal class is characterized by imposing the reciprocal property and two families of short time expansions for the bridges. Such local approach is suitable to study reciprocal processes on general countable graphs. As application of our characterization, we considered several interesting graphs, such as lattices, planar
graphs, the complete graph, and the hypercube.
Finally, we obtain some first results about concentration of measure implied by lower bounds on the reciprocal characteristics.