### Refine

#### Document Type

- Article (1)
- Doctoral Thesis (1)
- Review (1)

#### Language

- English (3)

#### Is part of the Bibliography

- yes (3)

#### Keywords

- Alps (1)
- Bohrlochmessungen (1)
- Geodynamics (1)
- Mountain building (1)
- Multivariate Analyse (1)
- Multivariate statistic (1)
- Nordostdeutsches Becken (1)
- Northeast German Basin (1)
- Seismic imaging (1)
- Seismic network (1)

#### Institute

The AlpArray seismic network
(2018)

The AlpArray programme is a multinational, European consortium to advance our understanding of orogenesis and its relationship to mantle dynamics, plate reorganizations, surface processes and seismic hazard in the Alps-Apennines-Carpathians-Dinarides orogenic system. The AlpArray Seismic Network has been deployed with contributions from 36 institutions from 11 countries to map physical properties of the lithosphere and asthenosphere in 3D and thus to obtain new, high-resolution geophysical images of structures from the surface down to the base of the mantle transition zone. With over 600 broadband stations operated for 2 years, this seismic experiment is one of the largest simultaneously operated seismological networks in the academic domain, employing hexagonal coverage with station spacing at less than 52 km. This dense and regularly spaced experiment is made possible by the coordinated coeval deployment of temporary stations from numerous national pools, including ocean-bottom seismometers, which were funded by different national agencies. They combine with permanent networks, which also required the cooperation of many different operators. Together these stations ultimately fill coverage gaps. Following a short overview of previous large-scale seismological experiments in the Alpine region, we here present the goals, construction, deployment, characteristics and data management of the AlpArray Seismic Network, which will provide data that is expected to be unprecedented in quality to image the complex Alpine mountains at depth.

In sedimentary basins, rock thermal conductivity can vary both laterally and vertically, thus altering the basin’s thermal structure locally and regionally. Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of geological formations and its spatial variations is essential, not only for quantifying basin evolution and hydrocarbon maturation processes, but also for understanding geothermal conditions in a geological setting. In conjunction with the temperature gradient, thermal conductivity represents the basic input parameter for the determination of the heat-flow density; which, in turn, is applied as a major input parameter in thermal modeling at different scales. Drill-core samples, which are necessary to determine thermal properties by laboratory measurements, are rarely available and often limited to previously explored reservoir formations. Thus, thermal conductivities of Mesozoic rocks in the North German Basin (NGB) are largely unknown. In contrast, geophysical borehole measurements are often available for the entire drilled sequence. Therefore, prediction equations to determine thermal conductivity based on well-log data are desirable. In this study rock thermal conductivity was investigated on different scales by (1) providing thermal-conductivity measurements on Mesozoic rocks, (2) evaluating and improving commonly applied mixing models which were used to estimate matrix and pore-filled rock thermal conductivities, and (3) developing new well-log based equations to predict thermal conductivity in boreholes without core control. Laboratory measurements are performed on sedimentary rock of major geothermal reservoirs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB) (Aalenian, Rhaethian-Liassic, Stuttgart Fm., and Middle Buntsandstein). Samples are obtained from eight deep geothermal wells that approach depths of up to 2,500 m. Bulk thermal conductivities of Mesozoic sandstones range between 2.1 and 3.9 W/(m∙K), while matrix thermal conductivity ranges between 3.4 and 7.4 W/(m∙K). Local heat flow for the Stralsund location averages 76 mW/m², which is in good agreement to values reported previously for the NEGB. For the first time, in-situ bulk thermal conductivity is indirectly calculated for entire borehole profiles in the NEGB using the determined surface heat flow and measured temperature data. Average bulk thermal conductivity, derived for geological formations within the Mesozoic section, ranges between 1.5 and 3.1 W/(m∙K). The measurement of both dry- and water-saturated thermal conductivities allow further evaluation of different two-component mixing models which are often applied in geothermal calculations (e.g., arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, Hashin-Shtrikman mean, and effective-medium theory mean). It is found that the geometric-mean model shows the best correlation between calculated and measured bulk thermal conductivity. However, by applying new model-dependent correction, equations the quality of fit could be significantly improved and the error diffusion of each model reduced. The ‘corrected’ geometric mean provides the most satisfying results and constitutes a universally applicable model for sedimentary rocks. Furthermore, lithotype-specific and model-independent conversion equations are developed permitting a calculation of water-saturated thermal conductivity from dry-measured thermal conductivity and porosity within an error range of 5 to 10%. The limited availability of core samples and the expensive core-based laboratory measurements make it worthwhile to use petrophysical well logs to determine thermal conductivity for sedimentary rocks. The approach followed in this study is based on the detailed analyses of the relationships between thermal conductivity of rock-forming minerals, which are most abundant in sedimentary rocks, and the properties measured by standard logging tools. By using multivariate statistics separately for clastic, carbonate and evaporite rocks, the findings from these analyses allow the development of prediction equations from large artificial data sets that predict matrix thermal conductivity within an error of 4 to 11%. These equations are validated successfully on a comprehensive subsurface data set from the NGB. In comparison to the application of earlier published approaches formation-dependent developed for certain areas, the new developed equations show a significant error reduction of up to 50%. These results are used to infer rock thermal conductivity for entire borehole profiles. By inversion of corrected in-situ thermal-conductivity profiles, temperature profiles are calculated and compared to measured high-precision temperature logs. The resulting uncertainty in temperature prediction averages < 5%, which reveals the excellent temperature prediction capabilities using the presented approach. In conclusion, data and methods are provided to achieve a much more detailed parameterization of thermal models.

Thermal conductivity (lambda) is an essential physical property of minerals and rocks and fundamental in constraining the thermal field of the lithosphere. In case that adequate samples to measure lambda are not available, it could be indirectly inferred from calculation. One of the most widely applied indirect methods for rocks involve modal mineralogy and porosity as parameters that are incorporated into mathematical mean or mixing models. Robust inferences from these approaches for crystalline rocks were impeded by a small number of studied samples or restriction to certain rock types. We employ this method and examine its applicability to low-porosity plutonic rocks by calculating bulk thermal conductivity lambda(b) for 45 samples covering the entire range from gabbro/diorite to granite. We show that the use of the harmonic-mean model for both rock matrix and porosity provided a good match between lambda(b.meas) and lambda(b.calc) of <10% deviation (2 sigma), with relative and absolute errors amounting to 1.49.7% and 4.44.9%, respectively. The results of our study constitute a big step forward to a robust conclusion on the overall applicability of the harmonic-mean model for inferring lambda(b) of isotropic, low-porosity, mafic to silicic plutonic and metamorphic rocks with an acceptable magnitude of error. Drill cuttings and enclaves form particularly interesting objects for application of this method, as they are poorly suited for direct measurement. Well-derived lambda values for those rocks would permit to calculate heat flow and to model more profoundly the thermal state of the deeper lithosphere.