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High cw power using an external cavity for spectral beam combining of diode laser-bar emission
(2006)

In extension to known concepts of wavelength-multiplexing diode laser arrays, a new external cavity is presented. The setup simultaneously improves the beam quality of each single emitter of a standard 25 emitter broad-area stripe laser bar and spectrally superimposes the 25 beams into one. By using this external resonator in an "off-axis" arrangement, beam qualities of M-slow(2) < 14 and M-fast(2) < 3 with optical powers in excess of 10 W in cw operation are obtained.

A new approach for efficient second-harmonic generation using diode lasers is presented. The experimental setup is based on a tapered amplifier operated in a ring resonator that is coupled to a miniaturized enhancement ring resonator containing a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Frequency locking of the diode laser emission to the resonance frequency of the enhancement cavity is realized purely optically, resulting in stable, single-frequency operation. Blue light at 488 nm with an output power of 310 mW is generated with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 18%.

Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in a nonlinear crystal generates two single photons (signal and idler) with random phases. Thus, no first-order interference between them occurs. However, coherence can be induced in a cascaded setup of two crystals if, e.g., the idler modes of both crystals are aligned to be indistinguishable. Due to the effect of phase memory it is found that the first-order interference of the signal beams can be controlled by the phase delay between the pump beams. Even for pump photon delays much larger than the coherence length of the SPDC photons, the visibility is above 90%. The high visibilities reported here prove an almost perfect phase memory effect across the two interferometers for the pump and the signal photon modes.

The precise knowledge of one of two complementary experimental outcomes prevents us from obtaining complete information about the other one. This formulation of Niels Bohr's principle of complementarity when applied to the paradigm of wave-particle dualism-that is, to Young's double-slit experiment-implies that the information about the slit through which a quantum particle has passed erases interference. In the present paper we report a double-slit experiment using two photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion where we observe interference in the signal photon despite the fact that we have located it in one of the slits due to its entanglement with the idler photon. This surprising aspect of complementarity comes to light by our special choice of the TEM01 pump mode. According to quantum field theory the signal photon is then in a coherent superposition of two distinct wave vectors giving rise to interference fringes analogous to two mechanical slits.

Multi-wavelength, high spatial brightness operation of a phase-locked stripe-array diode laser
(2012)

Stable continuous wave multi-wavelength operation of a stripe-array diode laser with an externalcavity spectral beam combining geometry is presented. In this setup each emitter of the stripe-array is forced to operate at a different wavelength, which leads to a decoupling between the usually phase-locked emitters. With a reflective diffraction grating with a period of 300 lines per mm, 33 equidistant laser lines around a center wavelength of 978 nm were realized, spanning a spectral range of 26 nm. With this novel approach near-diffraction limited emission with a beam quality of M (2) < 1.2 and an output power of 450 mW was achieved. This laser light source can be used for applications requiring low temporal but high spatial coherence.

We employ a photon pair created by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) where the pump laser is in the TEM01 mode to perform a Young's double-slit experiment. The signal photon illuminates the two slits and displays interference fringes in the far-field while the idler photon measured in the near-field in coincidence with the signal photon provides us with which-slit' information. We explain the results of these experiments with the help of an analytical expression for the second-order correlation function derived from an elementary model of SPDC. Our experiment emphasizes the crucial role of the mode function in the quantum theory of radiation.