- HPI Future SOC Lab (2017)
- Approaches to analyse and interpret biological profile data (2006)
- Advances in biotechnologies rapidly increase the number of molecules of a cell which can be observed simultaneously. This includes expression levels of thousands or ten-thousands of genes as well as concentration levels of metabolites or proteins. Such Profile data, observed at different times or at different experimental conditions (e.g., heat or dry stress), show how the biological experiment is reflected on the molecular level. This information is helpful to understand the molecular behaviour and to identify molecules or combination of molecules that characterise specific biological condition (e.g., disease). This work shows the potentials of component extraction algorithms to identify the major factors which influenced the observed data. This can be the expected experimental factors such as the time or temperature as well as unexpected factors such as technical artefacts or even unknown biological behaviour. Extracting components means to reduce the very high-dimensional data to a small set of new variables termed components. Each component is a combination of all original variables. The classical approach for that purpose is the principal component analysis (PCA). It is shown that, in contrast to PCA which maximises the variance only, modern approaches such as independent component analysis (ICA) are more suitable for analysing molecular data. The condition of independence between components of ICA fits more naturally our assumption of individual (independent) factors which influence the data. This higher potential of ICA is demonstrated by a crossing experiment of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Thale Cress). The experimental factors could be well identified and, in addition, ICA could even detect a technical artefact. However, in continuously observations such as in time experiments, the data show, in general, a nonlinear distribution. To analyse such nonlinear data, a nonlinear extension of PCA is used. This nonlinear PCA (NLPCA) is based on a neural network algorithm. The algorithm is adapted to be applicable to incomplete molecular data sets. Thus, it provides also the ability to estimate the missing data. The potential of nonlinear PCA to identify nonlinear factors is demonstrated by a cold stress experiment of Arabidopsis thaliana. The results of component analysis can be used to build a molecular network model. Since it includes functional dependencies it is termed functional network. Applied to the cold stress data, it is shown that functional networks are appropriate to visualise biological processes and thereby reveals molecular dynamics.
- Non-linear PCA : a missing data approach (2005)
- Motivation: Visualizing and analysing the potential non-linear structure of a dataset is becoming an important task in molecular biology. This is even more challenging when the data have missing values. Results: Here, we propose an inverse model that performs non-linear principal component analysis (NLPCA) from incomplete datasets. Missing values are ignored while optimizing the model, but can be estimated afterwards. Results are shown for both artificial and experimental datasets. In contrast to linear methods, non-linear methods were able to give better missing value estimations for non-linear structured data. Application: We applied this technique to a time course of metabolite data from a cold stress experiment on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and could approximate the mapping function from any time point to the metabolite responses. Thus, the inverse NLPCA provides greatly improved information for better understanding the complex response to cold stress
- Wirtschaft - Technik - Haushalt/Soziales : Neubearbeitung zum Lehrplan Wirtschaft - Technik - Haushalt/Soziales in Sachsen ; Schülerbuch 10 (2010)
- Heterosis manifestation during early Arabidopsis seedling development is characterized by intermediate gene expression and enhanced metabolic activity in the hybrids (2012)
- Heterosis-associated cellular and molecular processes were analyzed in seeds and seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions Col-0 and C24 and their heterotic hybrids. Microscopic examination revealed no advantages in terms of hybrid mature embryo organ sizes or cell numbers. Increased cotyledon sizes were detectable 4 days after sowing. Growth heterosis results from elevated cell sizes and numbers, and is well established at 10 days after sowing. The relative growth rates of hybrid seedlings were most enhanced between 3 and 4 days after sowing. Global metabolite profiling and targeted fatty acid analysis revealed maternal inheritance patterns for a large proportion of metabolites in the very early stages. During developmental progression, the distribution shifts to dominant, intermediate and heterotic patterns, with most changes occurring between 4 and 6 days after sowing. The highest incidence of heterotic patterns coincides with establishment of size differences at 4 days after sowing. In contrast, overall transcript patterns at 4, 6 and 10 days after sowing are characterized by intermediate to dominant patterns, with parental transcript levels showing the largest differences. Overall, the results suggest that, during early developmental stages, intermediate gene expression and higher metabolic activity in the hybrids compared to the parents lead to better resource efficiency, and therefore enhanced performance in the hybrids.
- PSYCHOLOGY Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science (2015)
- Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.