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The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (greater than or similar to 180 degrees) polarization angle swings are sometimes observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light travel time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

The Tibetan Himalaya represents the northernmost continental unit of the Indian plate that collided with Asia in the Cenozoic. Paleomagnetic studies on the Tibetan Himalaya can help constrain the dimension and paleogeography of "Greater India,' the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted and underthrusted below Asia after initial collision. Here we present a paleomagnetic investigation of a Jurassic (limestones) and Lower Cretaceous (volcaniclastic sandstones) section of the Tibetan Himalaya. The limestones yielded positive fold test, showing a prefolding origin of the isolated remanent magnetizations. Detailed paleomagnetic analyses, rock magnetic tests, end-member modeling of acquisition curves of isothermal remanent magnetization, and petrographic investigation reveal that the magnetic carrier of the Jurassic limestones is authigenic magnetite, whereas the dominant magnetic carrier of the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones is detrital magnetite. Our observations lead us to conclude that the Jurassic limestones record a prefolding remagnetization, whereas the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones retain a primary remanence. The volcaniclastic sandstones yield an Early Cretaceous paleolatitude of 55.5 degrees S [52.5 degrees S, 58.6 degrees S] for the Tibetan Himalaya, suggesting it was part of the Indian continent at that time. The size of "Greater India' during Jurassic time cannot be estimated from these limestones. Instead, a paleolatitude of the Tibetan Himalaya of 23.8 degrees S [21.8 degrees S, 26.1 degrees S] during the remagnetization process is suggested. It is likely that the remagnetization, caused by the oxidation of early diagenetic pyrite to magnetite, was induced during 103-83 or 77-67 Ma. The inferred paleolatitudes at these two time intervals imply very different tectonic consequences for the Tibetan Himalaya.

Paleomagnetic dating of the India-Asia collision hinges on determining the Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet). Reported latitudes range from 5 degrees N to 30 degrees N, however, leading to contrasting paleogeographic interpretations. Here we report new data from the Eocene Linzizong volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin, which previously yielded data suggesting a low paleolatitude (similar to 10 degrees N). New zircon U-Pb dates indicate an age of similar to 52Ma. Negative fold tests, however, demonstrate that the isolated characteristic remanent magnetizations, with notably varying inclinations, are not primary. Rock magnetic analyses, end-member modeling of isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves, and petrographic observations are consistent with variable degrees of posttilting remagnetization due to low-temperature alteration of primary magmatic titanomagnetite and the formation of secondary pigmentary hematite that unblock simultaneously. Previously reported paleomagnetic data from the Nanmulin Basin implying low paleolatitude should thus not be used to estimate the time and latitude of the India-Asia collision. We show that the paleomagnetic inclinations vary linearly with the contribution of secondary hematite to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization. We tentatively propose a new method to recover a primary remanence with inclination of 38.1 degrees (35.7 degrees, 40.5 degrees) (95% significance) and a secondary remanence with inclination of 42.9 degrees (41.5 degrees,44.4 degrees) (95% significance). The paleolatitude defined by the modeled primary remanence21 degrees N (19.8 degrees N, 23.1 degrees N)is consistent with the regional compilation of published results from pristine volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks of the upper Linzizong Group corrected for inclination shallowing. The start of the Tibetan Himalaya-Asia collision was situated at similar to 20 degrees N and took place by similar to 50Ma.

The Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet) can constrain the age of the onset of the India-Asia collision. Estimates for this latitude, however, vary from 5 degrees N to 30 degrees N, and thus, here, we reassess the geochronology and paleomagnetism of Paleogene volcanic rocks from the Linzizong Group in the Linzhou basin. The lower and upper parts of the section previously yielded particularly conflicting ages and paleolatitudes. We report consistent Ar-40/Ar-39 and U-Pb zircon dates of similar to 52Ma for the upper Linzizong, and Ar-40/Ar-39 dates (similar to 51Ma) from the lower Linzizong are significantly younger than U-Pb zircon dates (64-63Ma), suggesting that the lower Linzizong was thermally and/or chemically reset. Paleomagnetic results from 24 sites in lower Linzizong confirm a low apparent paleolatitude of similar to 5 degrees N, compared to the upper part (similar to 20 degrees N) and to underlying Cretaceous strata (similar to 20 degrees N). Detailed rock magnetic analyses, end-member modeling of magnetic components, and petrography from the lower and upper Linzizong indicate widespread secondary hematite in the lower Linzizong, whereas hematite is rare in upper Linzizong. Volcanic rocks of the lower Linzizong have been hydrothermally chemically remagnetized, whereas the upper Linzizong retains a primary remanence. We suggest that remagnetization was induced by acquisition of chemical and thermoviscous remanent magnetizations such that the shallow inclinations are an artifact of a tilt correction applied to a secondary remanence in lower Linzizong. We estimate that the Paleogene latitude of Lhasa terrane was 204 degrees N, consistent with previous results suggesting that India-Asia collision likely took place by similar to 52Ma at similar to 20 degrees N.

Background: Previous studies have shown that BMP4 may play an important part in the development of auditory neurons (ANs), which are degenerated in sensorineural hearing loss. However, whether BMP4 can promote sensory fate specification from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is unknown so far.
Methods: MSCs isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were confirmed by expression of MSC markers using flow cytometry and adipogenesis/osteogenesis using differentiation assays. MSCs treated with a complex of neurotrophic factors (BMP4 group and non-BMP4 group) were induced into auditory neuron-like cells, then the differences between the two groups were analyzed in morphological observation, cell growth curve, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence.
Results: Flow cytometric analysis showed that the isolated cells expressed typical MSC surface markers. After adipogenic and osteogenic induction, the cells were stained by oil red O and Alizarin Red. The neuronal induced cells were in the growth plateau and had special forms of neurons. In the presence of BMP4, the inner ear genes NF-M, Neurog1, GluR4, NeuroD, Calretinin, NeuN, Tau, and GATA3 were up-regulated in MSCs.
Conclusions: MSCs have the capacity to differentiate into auditory neuron-like cells in vitro. As an effective inducer, BMP4 may play a key role in transdifferentiation.

A general fact about language is that subject relative clauses are easier to process than object relative clauses. Recently, several self-paced reading studies have presented surprising evidence that object relatives in Chinese are easier to process than subject relatives. We carried out three self-paced reading experiments that attempted to replicate these results. Two of our three studies found a subject-relative preference, and the third study found an object-relative advantage. Using a random effects bayesian meta-analysis of fifteen studies (including our own), we show that the overall current evidence for the subject-relative advantage is quite strong (approximate posterior probability of a subject-relative advantage given the data: 78-80%). We argue that retrieval/integration based accounts would have difficulty explaining all three experimental results. These findings are important because they narrow the theoretical space by limiting the role of an important class of explanation-retrieval/integration cost-at least for relative clause processing in Chinese.

We introduce the concept of a conical zeta value as a geometric generalization of a multiple zeta value in the context of convex cones. The quasi-shuffle and shuffle relations of multiple zeta values are generalized to open cone subdivision and closed cone subdivision relations respectively for conical zeta values. In order to achieve the closed cone subdivision relation, we also interpret linear relations among fractions as subdivisions of decorated closed cones. As a generalization of the double shuffle relation of multiple zeta values, we give the double subdivision relation of conical zeta values and formulate the extended double subdivision relation conjecture for conical zeta values.

Renormalisation and locality
(2020)

We study the mathematical structure underlying the concept of locality which lies at the heart of classical and quantum field theory, and develop a machinery used to preserve locality during the renormalisation procedure. Viewing renormalisation in the framework of Connes and Kreimer as the algebraic Birkhoff factorisation of characters on a Hopf algebra with values in a Rota-Baxter algebra, we build locality variants of these algebraic structures, leading to a locality variant of the algebraic Birkhoff factorisation. This provides an algebraic formulation of the conservation of locality while renormalising. As an application in the context of the Euler-Maclaurin formula on lattice cones, we renormalise the exponential generating function which sums over the lattice points in a lattice cone. As a consequence, for a suitable multivariate regularisation, renormalisation from the algebraic Birkhoff factorisation amounts to composition by a projection onto holomorphic multivariate germs.