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The Ceres earthquake of 29 September 1969 is the largest known earthquake in southern Africa. Digitized analog recordings from Worldwide Standardized Seismographic Network stations (Powell and Fries, 1964) are used to retrieve the point source moment tensor and the most likely centroid depth of the event using full waveform modeling. A scalar seismic moment of 2.2-2.4 x 10(18) N center dot m corresponding to a moment magnitude of 6.2-6.3 is found. The analysis confirms the pure strike-slip mechanism previously determined from onset polarities by Green and Bloch (1971). Overall good agreement with the fault orientation previously estimated from local aftershock recordings is found. The centroid depth can be constrained to be less than 15 km. In a second analysis step, we use a higher order moment tensor based inversion scheme for simple extended rupture models to constrain the lateral fault dimensions. We find rupture propagated unilaterally for 4.7 s from east-southwest to west-northwest for about 17 km ( average rupture velocity of about 3: 1 km/s).

Earthquake rupture length and width estimates are in demand in many seismological applications. Earthquake magnitude estimates are often available, whereas the geometrical extensions of the rupture fault mostly are lacking. Therefore, scaling relations are needed to derive length and width from magnitude. Most frequently used are the relationships of Wells and Coppersmith (1994) derived on the basis of a large dataset including all slip types with the exception of thrust faulting events in subduction environments. However, there are many applications dealing with earthquakes in subduction zones because of their high seismic and tsunamigenic potential. There are no well-established scaling relations for moment magnitude and length/width for subduction events. Within this study, we compiled a large database of source parameter estimates of 283 earthquakes. All focal mechanisms are represented, but special focus is set on (large) subduction zone events, in particular. Scaling relations were fitted with linear least-square as well as orthogonal regression and analyzed regarding the difference between continental and subduction zone/oceanic relationships. Additionally, the effect of technical progress in earthquake parameter estimation on scaling relations was tested as well as the influence of different fault mechanisms. For a given moment magnitude we found shorter but wider rupture areas of thrust events compared to Wells and Coppersmith (1994). The thrust event relationships for pure continental and pure subduction zone rupture areas were found to be almost identical. The scaling relations differ significantly for slip types. The exclusion of events prior to 1964 when the worldwide standard seismic network was established resulted in a remarkable effect on strike-slip scaling relations: the data do not show any saturation of rupture width of strike- slip earthquakes. Generally, rupture area seems to scale with mean slip independent of magnitude. The aspect ratio L/W, however, depends on moment and differs for each slip type.

Magnitude estimation for microseismicity induced during the KTB 2004/2005 injection experiment
(2011)

We determined the magnitudes of 2540 microseismic events measured at one single 3C borehole geophone at the German Deep Drilling Site (known by the German acronym, KTB) during the injection phase 2004/2005. For this task we developed a three-step approach. First, we estimated local magnitudes of 104 larger events with a standard method based on amplitude measurements at near-surface stations. Second, we investigated a series of parameters to characterize the size of these events using the seismograms of the borehole sensor, and we compared them statistically with the local magnitudes. Third, we extrapolated the regression curve to obtain the magnitudes of 2436 events that were only measured at the borehole geophone. This method improved the magnitude of completeness for the KTB data set by more than one order down to M = -2.75. The resulting b-value for all events was 0.78, which is similar to the b-value obtained from taking only the greater events with standard local magnitude estimation from near-surface stations, b = 0.86. The more complete magnitude catalog was required to study the magnitude distribution with time and to characterize the seismotectonic state of the KTB injection site. The event distribution with time was consistent with prediction from theory assuming pore pressure diffusion as the underlying mechanism to trigger the events. The value we obtained for the seismogenic index of -4 suggested that the seismic hazard potential at the KTB site is comparatively low.

Characterization of polarization attributes of seismic waves using continuous wavelet transforms
(2006)

Complex-trace analysis is the method of choice for analyzing polarized data. Because particle motion can be represented by instantaneous attributes that show distinct features for waves of different polarization characteristics, it can be used to separate and characterize these waves. Traditional methods of complex-trace analysis only give the instantaneous attributes as a function of time or frequency. However. for transient wave types or seismic events that overlap in time, an estimate of the polarization parameters requires analysis of the time-frequency dependence of these attributes. We propose a method to map instantaneous polarization attributes of seismic signals in the wavelet domain and explicitly relate these attributes with the wavelet-transform coefficients of the analyzed signal. We compare our method with traditional complex-trace analysis using numerical examples. An advantage of our method is its possibility of performing the complete wave-mode separation/ filtering process in the wavelet domain and its ability to provide the frequency dependence of ellipticity, which contains important information on the subsurface structure. Furthermore, using 2-C synthetic and real seismic shot gathers, we show how to use the method to separate different wave types and identify zones of interfering wave modes

The most recent intense earthquake swarm in the Vogtland lasted from 6 October 2008 until January 2009. Greatest magnitudes exceeded M3.5 several times in October making it the greatest swarm since 1985/86. In contrast to the swarms in 1985 and 2000, seismic moment release was concentrated near swarm onset. Focal area and temporal evolution are similar to the swarm in 2000. Work hypothysis: uprising upper-mantle fluids trigger swarm earthquakes at low stress level. To monitor the seismicity, the University of Potsdam operated a small aperture seismic array at 10 km epicentral distance between 18 October 2008 and 18 March 2009. Consisting of 12 seismic stations and 3 additional microphones, the array is capable of detecting earthquakes from larger to very low magnitudes (M<-1) as well as associated air waves. We use array techniques to determine properties of the incoming wavefield: noise, direct P and S waves, and converted phases.

Tsunami early warning (TEW) is a challenging task as a decision has to be made within few minutes on the basis of incomplete and error-prone data. Deterministic warning systems have difficulties in integrating and quantifying the intrinsic uncertainties. In contrast, probabilistic approaches provide a framework that handles uncertainties in a natural way. Recently, we have proposed a method using Bayesian networks (BNs) that takes into account the uncertainties of seismic source parameter estimates in TEW. In this follow-up study, the method is applied to 10 recent large earthquakes offshore Sumatra and tested for its performance. We have evaluated both the general model performance given the best knowledge we have today about the source parameters of the 10 events and the corresponding response on seismic source information evaluated in real-time. We find that the resulting site-specific warning level probabilities represent well the available tsunami wave measurements and observations. Difficulties occur in the real-time tsunami assessment if the moment magnitude estimate is severely over- or underestimated. In general, the probabilistic analysis reveals a considerably large range of uncertainties in the near-field TEW. By quantifying the uncertainties the BN analysis provides important additional information to a decision maker in a warning centre to deal with the complexity in TEW and to reason under uncertainty.

First comparison of array-derived rotational ground motions with direct ring laser measurements
(2006)

Recently, ring laser technology has provided the first consistent observations of rotational ground motions around a vertical axis induced by earthquakes. "Consistent," in this context, implies that the observed waveforms and amplitudes are compatible with collocated recordings of translational ground motions. In particular, transverse accelerations should be in phase with rotation rate and their ratio proportional to local horizontal phase velocity assuming plane-wave propagation. The ring laser installed at the Fundamental station Wettzell in the Bavarian Forest, Southeast Germany, is recording the rotation rate around a vertical axis, theoretically a linear combination of the space derivatives of the horizontal components of motion. This suggests that, in principle, rotation can be derived from seismic-array experiments by "finite differencing." This has been attempted previously in several studies; however, the accuracy of these observations could never be tested in the absence of direct measurements. We installed a double cross-shaped array of nine stations from December 2003 to March 2004 around the ring laser instrument and observed several large earthquakes on both the ring laser and the seismic array. Here we present for the first time a comparison of array-derived rotations with direct measurements of rotations for ground motions induced by the M 6.3 Al Hoceima, Morocco, earthquake of 24 February 2004. With complete 3D synthetic seismograms calculated for this event we show that even low levels of noise may considerably influence the accuracy of the array-derived rotations when the minimum number of required stations (three) is used. Nevertheless, when using all nine stations, the overall fit between direct and array-derived measurements is surprisingly good (maximum correlation coefficient of 0.94).