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We have studied the bifurcations in a three-dimensional incompressible magnetofluid with periodic boundary conditions and an external forcing of the Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) type. Bifurcation-analysis techniques have been applied to explore the qualitative behavior of solution branches. Due to the symmetry of the forcing, the equations are equivariant with respect to a group of transformations isomorphic to the octahedral group, and we have paid special attention to symmetry-breaking effects. As the Reynolds number is increased, the primary nonmagnetic steady state, the ABC flow, loses its stability to a periodic magnetic state, showing the appearance of a generic dynamo effect; the critical value of the Reynolds number for the instability of the ABC flow is decreased compared to the purely hydrodynamic case. The bifurcating magnetic branch in turn is subject to secondary, symmetry-breaking bifurcations. We have traced periodic and quasi- periodic branches until they end up in chaotic states. In particular detail we have analyzed the subgroup symmetries of the bifurcating periodic branches, which are closely related to the spatial structure of the magnetic field.

We have numerically studied the bifurcation properties of a sheet pinch with impenetrable stress-free boundaries. An incompressible, electrically conducting fluid with spatially and temporally uniform kinematic viscosity and magnetic diffusivity is confined between planes at x1=0 and 1. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed in the x2 and x3 directions and the magnetofluid is driven by an electric field in the x3 direction, prescribed on the boundary planes. There is a stationary basic state with the fluid at rest and a uniform current J=(0,0,J3). Surprisingly, this basic state proves to be stable and apparently to be the only time-asymptotic state, no matter how strong the applied electric field and irrespective of the other control parameters of the system, namely, the magnetic Prandtl number, the spatial periods L2 and L3 in the x2 and x3 directions, and the mean values B¯2 and B¯3 of the magnetic-field components in these directions.

The usage of nonlinear Galerkin methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations is demonstrated by treating an example. We desribe the implementation of a nonlinear Galerkin method based on an approximate inertial manifold for the 3D magnetohydrodynamic equations and compare its efficiency with the linear Galerkin approximation. Special bifurcation points, time-averaged values of energy and enstrophy as well as Kaplan-Yorke dimensions are calculated for both schemes in order to estimate the number of modes necessary to correctly describe the behavior of the exact solutions.

The bifurcation behaviour of the 3D magnetohydrodynamic equations has been studied for external forcings of varying degree of helicity. With increasing strength of the forcing a primary non-magnetic steady state loses stability to a magnetic periodic state if the helicity exceeds a threshold value and to different non-magnetic states otherwise.

We report on bifurcation studies for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two space dimensions with periodic boundary conditions and an external forcing of the Kolmogorov type. Fourier representations of velocity and pressure have been used to approximate the original partial differential equations by a finite-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations, which then has been studied by means of bifurcation-analysis techniques. A special route into chaos observed for increasing Reynolds number or strength of the imposed forcing is described. It includes several steady states, traveling waves, modulated traveling waves, periodic and torus solutions, as well as a period-doubling cascade for a torus solution. Lyapunov exponents and Kaplan-Yorke dimensions have been calculated to characterize the chaotic branch. While studying the dynamics of the system in Fourier space, we also have transformed solutions to real space and examined the relation between the different bifurcations in Fourier space and toplogical changes of the streamline portrait. In particular, the time-dependent solutions, such as, e.g., traveling waves, torus, and chaotic solutions, have been characterized by the associated fluid-particle motion (Lagrangian dynamics).

It is shown that the ff effect of mean-field magnetohydrodynamics, which consists in the generation of a mean electromotive force along the mean magnetic field by turbulently fluctuating parts of velocity and magnetic field, is equivalent to the simultaneous generation of both turbulent and mean-field magnetic helicities, the generation rates being equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. In the particular case of statistically stationary and homogeneous fluctuations this implies that the ff effect can increase the energy in the mean magnetic field only under the condition that also magnetic helicity is accumulated there.

We study possible interrelations between the 300-year record of the yearly sunspot numbers and the solar inertial motion (SIM) using the recently developed technique of synchronization analysis. Phase synchronization of the sunspot cycle and the SIM is found and statistically confirmed in three epochs (1734-1790, 1855-1875 and 1907-1960) of the whole period 1700-2000. These results give quantitative support to the hypothesis that there is a weak interaction between the solar activity and the SIM.

We present a straightforward comparison of model calculations for the alpha-effect, helicities, and magnetic field line twist in the solar convection zone with magnetic field observations at atmospheric levels. The model calculations are carried out in a mixing-length approximation for the turbulence with a profile of the solar internal rotation rate obtained from helioseismic inversions. The magnetic field data consist of photospheric vector magnetograms of 422 active regions for which spatially-averaged values of the force-free twist parameter and of the current helicity density are calculated, which are then used to determine latitudinal profiles of these quantities. The comparison of the model calculations with the observations suggests that the observed twist and helicity are generated in the bulk of the convection zone, rather than in a layer close to the bottom. This supports two-layer dynamo models where the large-scale toroidal field is generated by differential rotation in a thin layer at the bottom while the alpha-effect is operating in the bulk of the convection zone. Our previous observational finding was that the moduli of the twist factor and of the current helicity density increase rather steeply from zero at the equator towards higher latitudes and attain a certain saturation at about 12 - 15 degrees. In our dynamo model with algebraic nonlinearity, the increase continues, however, to higher latitudes and is more gradual. This could be due to the neglect of the coupling between small-scale and large-scale current and magnetic helicities and of the latitudinal drift of the activity belts in the model

Motivated by the successful Karlsruhe dynamo experiment, a relatively low-dimensional dynamo model is proposed. It is based on a strong truncation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with an external forcing of the Roberts type and the requirement that the model system satisfies the symmetries of the full MHD system, so that the first symmetry-breaking bifurcations can be captured. The backbone of the Roberts dynamo is formed by the Roberts flow, a helical mean magnetic field and another part of the magnetic field coupled to these two by triadic mode interactions. A minimum truncation model (MTM) containing only these energetically dominating primary mode triads is fully equivalent to the widely used first-order smoothing approximation. However, it is shown that this approach works only in the limit of small wave numbers of the excited magnetic field or small magnetic Reynolds numbers ($Rm ll 1$). To obtain dynamo action under more general conditions, secondary mode