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Many methods have been proposed for the stabilization of higher index differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). Such methods often involve constraint differentiation and problem stabilization, thus obtaining a stabilized index reduction. A popular method is Baumgarte stabilization, but the choice of parameters to make it robust is unclear in practice. Here we explain why the Baumgarte method may run into trouble. We then show how to improve it. We further develop a unifying theory for stabilization methods which includes many of the various techniques proposed in the literature. Our approach is to (i) consider stabilization of ODEs with invariants, (ii) discretize the stabilizing term in a simple way, generally different from the ODE discretization, and (iii) use orthogonal projections whenever possible. The best methods thus obtained are related to methods of coordinate projection. We discuss them and make concrete algorithmic suggestions.

We consider the numerical treatment of Hamiltonian systems that contain a potential which grows large when the system deviates from the equilibrium value of the potential. Such systems arise, e.g., in molecular dynamics simulations and the spatial discretization of Hamiltonian partial differential equations. Since the presence of highly oscillatory terms in the solutions forces any explicit integrator to use very small step size, the numerical integration of such systems provides a challenging task. It has been suggested before to replace the strong potential by a holonomic constraint that forces the solutions to stay at the equilibrium value of the potential. This approach has, e.g., been successfully applied to the bond stretching in molecular dynamics simulations. In other cases, such as the bond-angle bending, this methods fails due to the introduced rigidity. Here we give a careful analysis of the analytical problem by means of a smoothing operator. This will lead us to the notion of the smoothed dynamics of a highly oscillatory Hamiltonian system. Based on our analysis, we suggest a new constrained formulation that maintains the flexibility of the system while at the same time suppressing the high-frequency components in the solutions and thus allowing for larger time steps. The new constrained formulation is Hamiltonian and can be discretized by the well-known SHAKE method.

A Hamiltonian system in potential form (formula in the original abstract) subject to smooth constraints on q can be viewed as a Hamiltonian system on a manifold, but numerical computations must be performed in Rn. In this paper methods which reduce "Hamiltonian differential algebraic equations" to ODEs in Euclidean space are examined. The authors study the construction of canonical parameterizations or local charts as well as methods based on the construction of ODE systems in the space in which the constraint manifold is embedded which preserve the constraint manifold as an invariant manifold. In each case, a Hamiltonian system of ordinary differential equations is produced. The stability of the constraint invariants and the behavior of the original Hamiltonian along solutions are investigated both numerically and analytically.

Many methods have been proposed for the simulation of constrained mechanical systems. The most obvious of these have mild instabilities and drift problems. Consequently, stabilization techniques have been proposed A popular stabilization method is Baumgarte's technique, but the choice of parameters to make it robust has been unclear in practice. Some of the simulation methods that have been proposed and used in computations are reviewed here, from a stability point of view. This involves concepts of differential-algebraic equation (DAE) and ordinary differential equation (ODE) invariants. An explanation of the difficulties that may be encountered using Baumgarte's method is given, and a discussion of why a further quest for better parameter values for this method will always remain frustrating is presented. It is then shown how Baumgarte's method can be improved. An efficient stabilization technique is proposed, which may employ explicit ODE solvers in case of nonstiff or highly oscillatory problems and which relates to coordinate projection methods. Examples of a two-link planar robotic arm and a squeezing mechanism illustrate the effectiveness of this new stabilization method.

In this paper, we show that symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta methods conserve momentum maps corresponding to linear symmetry groups acting on the phase space of Hamiltonian differential equations by extended point transformation. We also generalize this result to constrained systems and show how this conservation property relates to the symplectic integration of Lie-Poisson systems on certain submanifolds of the general matrix group GL(n).

Multisymplectic methods have recently been proposed as a generalization of symplectic ODE methods to the case of Hamiltonian PDEs. Their excellent long time behavior for a variety of Hamiltonian wave equations has been demonstrated in a number of numerical studies. A theoretical investigation and justification of multisymplectic methods is still largely missing. In this paper, we study linear multisymplectic PDEs and their discretization by means of numerical dispersion relations. It is found that multisymplectic methods in the sense of Bridges and Reich [Phys. Lett. A, 284 ( 2001), pp. 184-193] and Reich [J. Comput. Phys., 157 (2000), pp. 473-499], such as Gauss-Legendre Runge-Kutta methods, possess a number of desirable properties such as nonexistence of spurious roots and conservation of the sign of the group velocity. A certain CFL-type restriction on Delta t/Delta x might be required for methods higher than second order in time. It is also demonstrated by means of the explicit midpoint method that multistep methods may exhibit spurious roots in the numerical dispersion relation for any value of Delta t/Delta x despite being multisymplectic in the sense of discrete variational mechanics [J. E. Marsden, G. P. Patrick, and S. Shkoller, Commun. Math. Phys., 199 (1999), pp. 351-395]

We evaluate the Hamiltonian particle methods (HPM) and the Nambu discretization applied to shallow-water equations on the sphere using the test suggested by Galewsky et al. (2004). Both simulations show excellent conservation of energy and are stable in long-term simulation. We repeat the test also using the ICOSWP scheme to compare with the two conservative spatial discretization schemes. The HPM simulation captures the main features of the reference solution, but wave 5 pattern is dominant in the simulations applied on the ICON grid with relatively low spatial resolutions. Nevertheless, agreement in statistics between the three schemes indicates their qualitatively similar behaviors in the long-term integration.

We develop a hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) method for efficient long-term numerical integration of the atmosphere. In the HPM method, the hydrostatic approximation is interpreted as a holonomic constraint for the vertical position of particles. This can be viewed as defining a set of vertically buoyant horizontal meshes, with the altitude of each mesh point determined so as to satisfy the hydrostatic balance condition and with particles modelling horizontal advection between the moving meshes. We implement the method in a vertical-slice model and evaluate its performance for the simulation of idealized linear and nonlinear orographic flow in both dry and moist environments. The HPM method is able to capture the basic features of the gravity wave to a degree of accuracy comparable with that reported in the literature. The numerical solution in the moist experiment indicates that the influence of moisture on wave characteristics is represented reasonably well and the reduction of momentum flux is in good agreement with theoretical analysis.

Two recent works have adapted the Kalman-Bucy filter into an ensemble setting. In the first formulation, the ensemble of perturbations is updated by the solution of an ordinary differential equation (ODE) in pseudo-time, while the mean is updated as in the standard Kalman filter. In the second formulation, the full ensemble is updated in the analysis step as the solution of single set of ODEs in pseudo-time. Neither requires matrix inversions except for the frequently diagonal observation error covariance.
We analyse the behaviour of the ODEs involved in these formulations. We demonstrate that they stiffen for large magnitudes of the ratio of background error to observational error variance, and that using the integration scheme proposed in both formulations can lead to failure. A numerical integration scheme that is both stable and is not computationally expensive is proposed. We develop transform-based alternatives for these Bucy-type approaches so that the integrations are computed in ensemble space where the variables are weights (of dimension equal to the ensemble size) rather than model variables.
Finally, the performance of our ensemble transform Kalman-Bucy implementations is evaluated using three models: the 3-variable Lorenz 1963 model, the 40-variable Lorenz 1996 model, and a medium complexity atmospheric general circulation model known as SPEEDY. The results from all three models are encouraging and warrant further exploration of these assimilation techniques.

The ensemble Kalman filter has emerged as a promising filter algorithm for nonlinear differential equations subject to intermittent observations. In this paper, we extend the well-known Kalman-Bucy filter for linear differential equations subject to continous observations to the ensemble setting and nonlinear differential equations. The proposed filter is called the ensemble Kalman-Bucy filter and its performance is demonstrated for a simple mechanical model (Langevin dynamics) subject to incremental observations of its velocity.

We generalize the popular ensemble Kalman filter to an ensemble transform filter, in which the prior distribution can take the form of a Gaussian mixture or a Gaussian kernel density estimator. The design of the filter is based on a continuous formulation of the Bayesian filter analysis step. We call the new filter algorithm the ensemble Gaussian-mixture filter (EGMF). The EGMF is implemented for three simple test problems (Brownian dynamics in one dimension, Langevin dynamics in two dimensions and the three-dimensional Lorenz-63 model). It is demonstrated that the EGMF is capable of tracking systems with non-Gaussian uni- and multimodal ensemble distributions.

The adsorption of molecules to the surface of carbon nanostructures opens a new field of hybrid systems with distinct and controllable properties. We present a microscopic study of the optical absorption in carbon nanotubes functionalized with molecular spiropyran photoswitches. The switching process induces a change in the dipole moment leading to a significant coupling to the charge carriers in the nanotube. As a result, the absorption spectra of functionalized tubes reveal a considerable redshift of transition energies depending on the switching state of the spiropyran molecule. Our results suggest that carbon nanotubes are excellent substrates for the optical readout of spiropyran-based molecular switches. The gained insights can be applied to other noncovalently functionalized one-dimensional nanostructures in an externally induced dipole field.

We consider the problem of discrete time filtering (intermittent data assimilation) for differential equation models and discuss methods for its numerical approximation. The focus is on methods based on ensemble/particle techniques and on the ensemble Kalman filter technique in particular. We summarize as well as extend recent work on continuous ensemble Kalman filter formulations, which provide a concise dynamical systems formulation of the combined dynamics-assimilation problem. Possible extensions to fully nonlinear ensemble/particle based filters are also outlined using the framework of optimal transportation theory.

Atomic oscillations present in classical molecular dynamics restrict the step size that can be used. Multiple time stepping schemes offer only modest improvements, and implicit integrators are costly and inaccurate. The best approach may be to actually remove the highest frequency oscillations by constraining bond lengths and bond angles, thus permitting perhaps a 4-fold increase in the step size. However, omitting degrees of freedom produces errors in statistical averages, and rigid angles do not bend for strong excluded volume forces. These difficulties can be addressed by an enhanced treatment of holonomic constrained dynamics using ideas from papers of Fixman (1974) and Reich (1995, 1999). In particular, the 1995 paper proposes the use of "flexible" constraints, and the 1999 paper uses a modified potential energy function with rigid constraints to emulate flexible constraints. Presented here is a more direct and rigorous derivation of the latter approach, together with justification for the use of constraints in molecular modeling. With rigor comes limitations, so practical compromises are proposed: simplifications of the equations and their judicious application when assumptions are violated. Included are suggestions for new approaches.

The problem of an ensemble Kalman filter when only partial observations are available is considered. In particular, the situation is investigated where the observational space consists of variables that are directly observable with known observational error, and of variables of which only their climatic variance and mean are given. To limit the variance of the latter poorly resolved variables a variance-limiting Kalman filter (VLKF) is derived in a variational setting. The VLKF for a simple linear toy model is analyzed and its range of optimal performance is determined. The VLKF is explored in an ensemble transform setting for the Lorenz-96 system, and it is shown that incorporating the information of the variance of some unobservable variables can improve the skill and also increase the stability of the data assimilation procedure.

We develop a multigrid, multiple time stepping scheme to reduce computational efforts for calculating complex stress interactions in a strike-slip 2D planar fault for the simulation of seismicity. The key elements of the multilevel solver are separation of length scale, grid-coarsening, and hierarchy. In this study the complex stress interactions are split into two parts: the first with a small contribution is computed on a coarse level, and the rest for strong interactions is on a fine level. This partition leads to a significant reduction of the number of computations. The reduction of complexity is even enhanced by combining the multigrid with multiple time stepping. Computational efficiency is enhanced by a factor of 10 while retaining a reasonable accuracy, compared to the original full matrix-vortex multiplication. The accuracy of solution and computational efficiency depend on a given cut-off radius that splits multiplications into the two parts. The multigrid scheme is constructed in such a way that it conserves stress in the entire half-space.

Many applications, such as intermittent data assimilation, lead to a recursive application of Bayesian inference within a Monte Carlo context. Popular data assimilation algorithms include sequential Monte Carlo methods and ensemble Kalman filters (EnKFs). These methods differ in the way Bayesian inference is implemented. Sequential Monte Carlo methods rely on importance sampling combined with a resampling step, while EnKFs utilize a linear transformation of Monte Carlo samples based on the classic Kalman filter. While EnKFs have proven to be quite robust even for small ensemble sizes, they are not consistent since their derivation relies on a linear regression ansatz. In this paper, we propose another transform method, which does not rely on any a priori assumptions on the underlying prior and posterior distributions. The new method is based on solving an optimal transportation problem for discrete random variables.

Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2-4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

We study the possibility of obtaining a computational turbulence model by means of non-dissipative regularisation of the compressible atmospheric equations for climate-type applications. We use an -regularisation (Lagrangian averaging) of the atmospheric equations. For the hydrostatic and compressible atmospheric equations discretised using a finite volume method on unstructured grids, deterministic and non-deterministic numerical experiments are conducted to compare the individual solutions and the statistics of the regularised equations to those of the original model. The impact of the regularisation parameter is investigated. Our results confirm the principal compatibility of -regularisation with atmospheric dynamics and encourage further investigations within atmospheric model including complex physical parametrisations.

The generalized hybrid Monte Carlo (GHMC) method combines Metropolis corrected constant energy simulations with a partial random refreshment step in the particle momenta. The standard detailed balance condition requires that momenta are negated upon rejection of a molecular dynamics proposal step. The implication is a trajectory reversal upon rejection, which is undesirable when interpreting GHMC as thermostated molecular dynamics. We show that a modified detailed balance condition can be used to implement GHMC without momentum flips. The same modification can be applied to the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method. Numerical results indicate that GHMC/GSHMC implementations with momentum flip display a favorable behavior in terms of sampling efficiency, i.e., the traditional GHMC/GSHMC implementations with momentum flip got the advantage of a higher acceptance rate and faster decorrelation of Monte Carlo samples. The difference is more pronounced for GHMC. We also numerically investigate the behavior of the GHMC method as a Langevin-type thermostat. We find that the GHMC method without momentum flip interferes less with the underlying stochastic molecular dynamics in terms of autocorrelation functions and it to be preferred over the GHMC method with momentum flip. The same finding applies to GSHMC.

We consider the problem of propagating an ensemble of solutions and its characterization in terms of its mean and covariance matrix. We propose differential equations that lead to a continuous matrix factorization of the ensemble into a generalized singular value decomposition (SVD). The continuous factorization is applied to ensemble propagation under periodic rescaling (ensemble breeding) and under periodic Kalman analysis steps (ensemble Kalman filter). We also use the continuous matrix factorization to perform a re-orthogonalization of the ensemble after each time-step and apply the resulting modified ensemble propagation algorithm to the ensemble Kalman filter. Results from the Lorenz-96 model indicate that the re-orthogonalization of the ensembles leads to improved filter performance.

We introduce a new mixed finite element for solving the 2- and 3-dimensional wave equations and equations of incompressible flow. The element, which we refer to as P1(D)-P2, uses discontinuous piecewise linear functions for velocity and continuous piecewise quadratic functions for pressure. The aim of introducing the mixed formulation is to produce a new flexible element choice for triangular and tetrahedral meshes which satisfies the LBB stability condition and hence has no spurious zero-energy modes. The advantage of this particular element choice is that the mass matrix for velocity is block diagonal so it can be trivially inverted; it also allows the order of the pressure to be increased to quadratic whilst maintaining LBB stability which has benefits in geophysical applications with Coriolis forces. We give a normal mode analysis of the semi-discrete wave equation in one dimension which shows that the element pair is stable, and demonstrate that the element is stable with numerical integrations of the wave equation in two dimensions, an analysis of the resultant discrete Laplace operator in two and three dimensions on various meshes which shows that the element pair does not have any spurious modes. We provide convergence tests for the element pair which confirm that the element is stable since the convergence rate of the numerical solution is quadratic.

We present a Monte Carlo technique for sampling from the canonical distribution in molecular dynamics. The method is built upon the Nose-Hoover constant temperature formulation and the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method. In contrast to standard hybrid Monte Carlo methods only the thermostat degree of freedom is stochastically resampled during a Monte Carlo step.

Ensemble Kalman filter techniques are widely used to assimilate observations into dynamical models. The phase- space dimension is typically much larger than the number of ensemble members, which leads to inaccurate results in the computed covariance matrices. These inaccuracies can lead, among other things, to spurious long-range correlations, which can be eliminated by Schur-product-based localization techniques. In this article, we propose a new technique for implementing such localization techniques within the class of ensemble transform/square-root Kalman filters. Our approach relies on a continuous embedding of the Kalman filter update for the ensemble members, i.e. we state an ordinary differential equation (ODE) with solutions that, over a unit time interval, are equivalent to the Kalman filter update. The ODE formulation forms a gradient system with the observations as a cost functional. Besides localization, the new ODE ensemble formulation should also find useful application in the context of nonlinear observation operators and observations that arrive continuously in time.

It is well recognized that discontinuous analysis increments of sequential data assimilation systems, such as ensemble Kalman filters, might lead to spurious high-frequency adjustment processes in the model dynamics. Various methods have been devised to spread out the analysis increments continuously over a fixed time interval centred about the analysis time. Among these techniques are nudging and incremental analysis updates (IAU). Here we propose another alternative, which may be viewed as a hybrid of nudging and IAU and which arises naturally from a recently proposed continuous formulation of the ensemble Kalman analysis step. A new slow-fast extension of the popular Lorenz-96 model is introduced to demonstrate the properties of the proposed mollified ensemble Kalman filter.

The paper provides an introduction and survey of conservative discretization methods for Hamiltonian partial differential equations. The emphasis is on variational, symplectic and multi-symplectic methods. The derivation of methods as well as some of their fundamental geometric properties are discussed. Basic principles are illustrated by means of examples from wave and fluid dynamics

In diesem Beitrag wird der Zusammenhang zwischen Algebrodifferentialgleichungen (ADGL) und Vektorfeldern auf Mannigfaltigkeiten untersucht. Dazu wird zunächst der Begriff der regulären ADGL eingeführt, wobei unter eirter regulären ADGL eine ADGL verstanden wird, deren Lösungsmenge identisch mit der Lösungsmenge eines Vektorfeldes ist. Ausgehend von bekannten Aussagen über die Lösungsmenge eines Vektorfeldes werden analoge Aussagen für die Lösungsmenge einer regulären ADGL abgeleitet. Es wird eine Reduktionsmethode angegeben, die auf ein Kriterium für die Begularität einer ADGL und auf die Definition des Index einer nichtlinearen ADGL führt. Außerdem wird gezeigt, daß beliebige Vektorfelder durch reguläre ADGL so realisiert werden können, daß die Lösungsmenge des Vektorfeldes mit der der realisierenden ADGL identisch ist. Abschließend werden die für autonome ADGL gewonnenen Aussagen auf den Fall der nichtautonomen ADGL übertragen.

An existence and uniqueness theory is developed for general nonlinear and nonautonomous differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) by exploiting their underlying differential-geometric structure. A DAE is called regular if there is a unique nonautonomous vector field such that the solutions of the DAE and the solutions of the vector field are in one-to-one correspondence. Sufficient conditions for regularity of a DAE are derived in terms of constrained manifolds. Based on this differential-geometric characterization, existence and uniqueness results are stated for regular DAEs. Furthermore, our not ons are compared with techniques frequently used in the literature such as index and solvability. The results are illustrated in detail by means of a simple circuit example.

A theoretical famework for the investigation of the qualitative behavior of differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) near an equilibrium point is established. The key notion of our approach is the notion of regularity. A DAE is called regular locally around an equilibrium point if there is a unique vector field such that the solutions of the DAE and the vector field are in one-to-one correspondence in a neighborhood of this equili Drium point. Sufficient conditions for the regularity of an equilibrium point are stated. This in turn allows us to translate several local results, as formulated for vector fields, to DAEs that are regular locally around a g: ven equilibrium point (e.g. Local Stable and Unstable Manifold Theorem, Hopf theorem). It is important that ihese theorems are stated in terms of the given problem and not in terms of the corresponding vector field.

Technical and physical systems, especially electronic circuits, are frequently modeled as a system of differential and nonlinear implicit equations. In the literature such systems of equations are called differentialalgebraic equations (DAEs). It turns out that the numerical and analytical properties of a DAE depend on an integer called the index of the problem. For example, the well-known BDF method of Gear can be applied, in general, to a DAE only if the index does not exceed one. In this paper we give a geometric interpretation of higherindex DAEs and indicate problems arising in connection with such DAEs by means of several examples.

The subject of this paper is the relation of differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) to vector fields on manifolds. For that reason, we introduce the notion of a regular DAE as a DAE to which a vector field uniquely corresponds. Furthermore, a technique is described which yields a family of manifolds for a given DAE. This socalled family of constraint manifolds allows in turn the formulation of sufficient conditions for the regularity of a DAE. and the definition of the index of a regular DAE. We also state a method for the reduction of higher-index DAEs to lowsr-index ones that can be solved without introducing additional constants of integration. Finally, the notion of realizability of a given vector field by a regular DAE is introduced, and it is shown that any vector field can be realized by a regular DAE. Throughout this paper the problem of path-tracing is discussed as an illustration of the mathematical phenomena.

Assimilation of pseudo-tree-ring-width observations into an atmospheric general circulation model
(2017)

Paleoclimate data assimilation (DA) is a promising technique to systematically combine the information from climate model simulations and proxy records. Here, we investigate the assimilation of tree-ring-width (TRW) chronologies into an atmospheric global climate model using ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) techniques and a process-based tree-growth forward model as an observation operator. Our results, within a perfect-model experiment setting, indicate that the "online DA" approach did not outperform the "off-line" one, despite its considerable additional implementation complexity. On the other hand, it was observed that the nonlinear response of tree growth to surface temperature and soil moisture does deteriorate the operation of the time-averaged EnKF methodology. Moreover, for the first time we show that this skill loss appears significantly sensitive to the structure of the growth rate function, used to represent the principle of limiting factors (PLF) within the forward model. In general, our experiments showed that the error reduction achieved by assimilating pseudo-TRW chronologies is modulated by the magnitude of the yearly internal variability in themodel. This result might help the dendrochronology community to optimize their sampling efforts.