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The role of knowledge in the policy process remains a central theoretical puzzle in policy analysis and political science. This article argues that an important yet missing piece of this puzzle is the systematic exploration of the political use of policy knowledge. While much of the recent debate has focused on the question of how the substantive use of knowledge can improve the quality of policy choices, our understanding of the political use of knowledge and its effects in the policy process has remained deficient in key respects. A revised conceptualization of the political use of knowledge is introduced that emphasizes how conflicting knowledge can be used to contest given structures of policy authority. This allows the analysis to differentiate between knowledge creep and knowledge shifts as two distinct types of knowledge effects in the policy process. While knowledge creep is associated with incremental policy change within existing policy structures, knowledge shifts are linked to more fundamental policy change in situations when the structures of policy authority undergo some level of transformation. The article concludes by identifying characteristics of the administrative structure of policy systems or sectors that make knowledge shifts more or less likely.

Mobile commerce (m-commerce) in the smartphone age is revolutionizing established value networks and transforming the wider economy. In this introduction we strive to build a bridge from the past of m-commerce research to its future. We examine more than a decade of research and conduct a Delphi study among leading scholars in the field. The review reveals significant changes in m-commerce topics as time goes on, and provides initial insights into what the future may hold for us. The most sobering finding is that the m-commerce field has still to establish a strong theoretical foundation. This has been reflected in less than overwhelming success in publishing on the subject in the most prestigious journals of the Information Systems discipline. At the same time, m-commerce forms one of the epicenters of the ongoing digitalization of our life. Therefore, we look forward to m-commerce research rising to the challenge and making significant contributions to understanding one of the important phenomena of our time.

The Collatz conjecture is a number theoretical problem, which has puzzled countless researchers using myriad approaches. Presently, there are scarcely any methodologies to describe and treat the problem from the perspective of the Algebraic Theory of Automata. Such an approach is promising with respect to facilitating the comprehension of the Collatz sequences "mechanics". The systematic technique of a state machine is both simpler and can fully be described by the use of algebraic means.
The current gap in research forms the motivation behind the present contribution. The present authors are convinced that exploring the Collatz conjecture in an algebraic manner, relying on findings and fundamentals of Graph Theory and Automata Theory, will simplify the problem as a whole.

It is well known that the inverted Collatz sequence can be represented as a graph or a tree. Similarly, it is acknowledged that in order to prove the Collatz conjecture, one must demonstrate that this tree covers all (odd) natural numbers. A structured reachability analysis is hitherto not available. This paper investigates the problem from a graph theory perspective. We define a tree that consists of nodes labeled with Collatz sequence numbers. This tree will be transformed into a sub-tree that only contains odd labeled nodes. The analysis of this tree will provide new insights into the structure of Collatz sequences. The findings are of special interest to possible cycles within a sequence. Next, we describe the conditions which must be fulfilled by a cycle. Finally, we demonstrate how these conditions could be used to prove that the only possible cycle within a Collatz sequence is the trivial cycle, starting with the number 1, as conjectured by Lothar Collatz.

The Collatz conjecture is a number theoretical problem, which has puzzled countless researchers using myriad approaches. Presently, there are scarcely any methodologies to describe and treat the problem from the perspective of the Algebraic Theory of Automata. Such an approach is promising with respect to facilitating the comprehension of the Collatz sequence’s "mechanics". The systematic technique of a state machine is both simpler and can fully be described by the use of algebraic means.
The current gap in research forms the motivation behind the present contribution. The present authors are convinced that exploring the Collatz conjecture in an algebraic manner, relying on findings and fundamentals of Graph Theory and Automata Theory, will simplify the problem as a whole.

The present work will introduce a Finite State Machine (FSM) that processes any Collatz Sequence; further, we will endeavor to investigate its behavior in relationship to transformations of a special infinite input. Moreover, we will prove that the machine’s word transformation is equivalent to the standard Collatz number transformation and subsequently discuss the possibilities for use of this approach at solving similar problems. The benefit of this approach is that the investigation of the word transformation performed by the Finite State Machine is less complicated than the traditional number-theoretical transformation.