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Die genauen Einsatzzeiten seismischer P-Phasen von Erdbeben werden in SeisComP3 und anderen Auswerteprogrammen standardmäßig und in Echtzeit automatisch bestimmt. S-Phasen stellen dagegen eine weit größere Herausforderung dar. Nur mit genauen Picks der P- bzw. S-Phasen können die Erdbebenlokationen korrekt und stabil bestimmt werden. Darum besteht erhebliches Interesse, diese mit hoher Genauigkeit zu bestimmen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Bachelorarbeit war es, vier verschiedene, bereits vorhandene S-Phasenpicker auf ausgewählte Parameter optimal zu konfigurieren, auf Testdaten anzuwenden und deren Leistungsfähigkeit objektiv zu bewerten. Dazu wurden ein S-Picker (S-L2) aus dem OpenSource SeisComp3-Programmpaket, zwei S-Picker (S-AIC, S-AIC-V) als kommerzielles Modul der Firma gempa GmbH für SeisComP3 und ein S-Picker (Frequenzband) aus dem OpenSource PhasePaPy-Paket ausgewählt. Die Bewertung erfolgte durch Vergleich automatischer Picks mit manuell bestimmten Einsatzzeiten. Alle vier Picker wurden separat konfiguriert und auf drei verschiedene Datensätze von Erdbeben in N-Chile und im Vogtland, Deutschland, angewandt. Dazu wurden regional bzw. lokal typische Erdbeben zufällig ausgewählt und die P- und S-Phasen manuell bestimmt. Mit den zu testenden S-Pickeralgorithmen wurden dieselben Daten durchsucht und die Picks automatisch bestimmt. Die Konfigurationen der Picker wurden gleichzeitig automatisch und objektiv durch iterative Anpassung optimiert. Ein neu erstelltes Bewertungssystem vergleicht die manuellen und die automatisch gefundenen S-Picks anhand von definierten Qualitätsfaktoren. Die Qualitätsfaktoren sind: der Mittelwert und die Standardabweichung der zeitlichen Differenzen zwischen den S-Picks, die Anzahl an übereinstimmenden S-Picks, die Prozentangaben über mögliche S-Picks und die benötigt Rechenzeit. Die objektive Bewertung erfolgte anhand eines Scores. Der Scorewert ergibt sich aus der gewichteten Summe folgender normierter Qualitätsfaktoren: Standardabweichung (20%), Mittelwert (20%) und Prozentangabe über mögliche S-Picks (60%). Konfigurationen mit hohem Score werden bevorzugt. Die bevorzugten Konfigurationen der verschiedenen Picker wurden miteinander verglichen, um den am besten geeigneten S-Pickeralgorithmus zu bestimmen. Allgemein zeigt sich, dass der S-AIC Picker für jeden der drei Datensätze die höchsten Scores und damit die besten Ergebnisse liefert. Dabei wurde für jeden Datensatz ein andere Konfiguration der Parameter des S-AIC Pickers als die am besten geeignete bezeichnet. Daher ist für jede Erdbebenregion eine andere Konfigurationen erforderlich, um optimale Ergebnisse mit diesem S-Picker zu bekommen.

Rapidly uplifting coastlines are frequently associated with convergent tectonic boundaries, like subduction zones, which are repeatedly breached by giant megathrust earthquakes. The coastal relief along tectonically active realms is shaped by the effect of sea-level variations and heterogeneous patterns of permanent tectonic deformation, which are accumulated through several cycles of megathrust earthquakes. However, the correlation between earthquake deformation patterns and the sustained long-term segmentation of forearcs, particularly in Chile, remains poorly understood. Furthermore, the methods used to estimate permanent deformation from geomorphic markers, like marine terraces, have remained qualitative and are based on unrepeatable methods. This contrasts with the increasing resolution of digital elevation models, such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and high-resolution bathymetric surveys.
Throughout this thesis I study permanent deformation in a holistic manner: from the methods to assess deformation rates, to the processes involved in its accumulation. My research focuses particularly on two aspects: Developing methodologies to assess permanent deformation using marine terraces, and comparing permanent deformation with seismic cycle deformation patterns under different spatial scales along the M8.8 Maule earthquake (2010) rupture zone. Two methods are developed to determine deformation rates from wave-built and wave-cut terraces respectively. I selected an archetypal example of a wave-built terrace at Santa Maria Island studying its stratigraphy and recognizing sequences of reoccupation events tied with eleven radiocarbon sample ages (14C ages). I developed a method to link patterns of reoccupation with sea-level proxies by iterating relative sea level curves for a range of uplift rates. I find the best fit between relative sea-level and the stratigraphic patterns for an uplift rate of 1.5 +- 0.3 m/ka.
A Graphical User Interface named TerraceM® was developed in Matlab®. This novel software tool determines shoreline angles in wave-cut terraces under different geomorphic scenarios. To validate the methods, I select test sites in areas of available high-resolution LiDAR topography along the Maule earthquake rupture zone and in California, USA. The software allows determining the 3D location of the shoreline angle, which is a proxy for the estimation of permanent deformation rates. The method is based on linear interpolations to define the paleo platform and cliff on swath profiles. The shoreline angle is then located by intersecting these interpolations. The
accuracy and precision of TerraceM® was tested by comparing its results with previous assessments, and through an experiment with students in a computer lab setting at the University
of Potsdam.
I combined the methods developed to analyze wave-built and wave-cut terraces to assess regional patterns of permanent deformation along the (2010) Maule earthquake rupture. Wave-built terraces are tied using 12 Infra Red Stimulated luminescence ages (IRSL ages) and shoreline angles in wave-cut terraces are estimated from 170 aligned swath profiles. The comparison of coseismic slip, interseismic coupling, and permanent deformation, leads to three areas of high permanent uplift, terrace warping, and sharp fault offsets. These three areas correlate with regions of high slip and low coupling, as well as with the spatial limit of at least eight historical megathrust ruptures (M8-9.5). I propose that the zones of upwarping at Arauco and Topocalma reflect changes in frictional properties of the megathrust, which result in discrete boundaries for the propagation of mega earthquakes.
To explore the application of geomorphic markers and quantitative morphology in offshore areas I performed a local study of patterns of permanent deformation inferred from hitherto unrecognized drowned shorelines at the Arauco Bay, at the southern part of the (2010) Maule earthquake rupture zone. A multidisciplinary approach, including morphometry, sedimentology, paleontology, 3D morphoscopy, and a landscape Evolution Model is used to recognize, map, and assess local rates and patterns of permanent deformation in submarine environments. Permanent deformation patterns are then reproduced using elastic models to assess deformation rates of an active submarine splay fault defined as Santa Maria Fault System. The best fit suggests a reverse structure with a slip rate of 3.7 m/ka for the last 30 ka. The register of land level changes during the earthquake cycle at Santa Maria Island suggest that most of the deformation may be accrued through splay fault reactivation during mega earthquakes, like the (2010) Maule event. Considering a recurrence time of 150 to 200 years, as determined from historical and geological observations, slip between 0.3 and 0.7 m per event would be required to account for the 3.7 m/ka millennial slip rate. However, if the SMFS slips only every ~1000 years, representing a few megathrust earthquakes, then a slip of ~3.5 m per event would be required to account for the long- term rate. Such event would be equivalent to a magnitude ~6.7 earthquake capable to generate a local tsunami.
The results of this thesis provide novel and fundamental information regarding the amount of permanent deformation accrued in the crust, and the mechanisms responsible for this accumulation at millennial time-scales along the M8.8 Maule earthquake (2010) rupture zone. Furthermore, the results of this thesis highlight the application of quantitative geomorphology and the use of repeatable methods to determine permanent deformation, improve the accuracy of marine terrace assessments, and estimates of vertical deformation rates in tectonically active coastal areas. This is vital information for adequate coastal-hazard assessments and to anticipate realistic earthquake and tsunami scenarios.

Earthquakes deform Earth's surface, building long-lasting topographic features and contributing to landscape and mountain formation.
However, seismic waves produced by earthquakes may also destabilize hillslopes, leading to large amounts of soil and bedrock moving downslope. Moreover, static deformation and shaking are suspected to damage the surface bedrock and therefore alter its future properties, affecting hydrological and erosional dynamics. Thus, earthquakes participate both in mountain building and stimulate directly or indirectly their erosion. Moreover, the impact of earthquakes on hillslopes has important implications for the amount of sediment and organic matter delivered to rivers, and ultimately to oceans, during episodic catastrophic seismic crises, the magnitude of life and property losses associated with landsliding, the perturbation and recovery of landscape properties after shaking, and the long term topographic evolution of mountain belts. Several of these aspects have been addressed recently through individual case studies but additional data compilation as well as theoretical or numerical modelling are required to tackle these issues in a more systematic and rigorous manner.
This dissertation combines data compilation of earthquake characteristics, landslide mapping, and seismological data interpretation with physically-based modeling in order to address how earthquakes impact on erosional processes and landscape evolution. Over short time scales (10-100 s) and intermediate length scales (10 km), I have attempted to improve our understanding and ability to predict the amount of landslide debris triggered by seismic shaking in epicentral areas. Over long time scales (1-100 ky) and across a mountain belt (100 km) I have modeled the competition between erosional unloading and building of topography associated with earthquakes. Finally, over intermediate time scales (1-10 y) and at the hillslope scale (0.1-1 km) I have collected geomorphological and seismological data that highlight persistent effects of earthquakes on landscape properties and behaviour.
First, I compiled a database on earthquakes that produced significant landsliding, including an estimate of the total landslide volume and area, and earthquake characteristics such as seismic moment and source depth. A key issue is the accurate conversion of landslide maps into volume estimates. Therefore I also estimated how amalgamation - when mapping errors lead to the bundling of multiple landslide into a single polygon - affects volume estimates from various earthquake-induced landslide inventories and developed an algorithm to automatically detect this artifact. The database was used to test a physically-based prediction of the total landslide area and volume caused by earthquakes, based on seismological scaling relationships and a statistical description of the landscape properties. The model outperforms empirical fits in accuracy, with 25 out of 40 cases well predicted, and allows interpretation of many outliers in physical terms. Apart from seismological complexities neglected by the model I found that exceptional rock strength properties or antecedent conditions may explain most outliers.
Second, I assessed the geomorphic effects of large earthquakes on landscape dynamics by surveying the temporal evolution of precipitation-normalized landslide rate. I found strongly elevated landslide rates following earthquakes that progressively recover over 1 to 4 years, indicating that regolith strength drops and recovers. The relaxation is clearly non-linear for at least one case, and does not seem to correlate with coseismic landslide reactivation, water table level increase or tree root-system recovery. I suggested that shallow bedrock is damaged by the earthquake and then heals on annual timescales. Such variations in ground strength must be translated into shallow subsurface seismic velocities that are increasingly surveyed with ambient seismic noise correlations. With seismic noise autocorrelation I computed the seismic velocity in the epicentral areas of three earthquakes where I constrained a change in landslide rate. We found similar recovery dynamics and timescales, suggesting that seismic noise correlation techniques could be further developed to meaningfully assess ground strength variations for landscape dynamics. These two measurements are also in good agreement with the temporal dynamics of post-seismic surface displacement measured by GPS. This correlation suggests that the surface healing mechanism may be driven by tectonic deformation, and that the surface regolith and fractured bedrock may behave as a granular media that slowly compacts as it is sheared or vibrated.
Last, I compared our model of earthquake-induced landsliding with a standard formulation of surface deformation caused by earthquakes to understand which parameters govern the competition between the building and destruction of topography caused by earthquakes. In contrast with previous studies I found that very large (Mw>8) earthquakes always increase the average topography, whereas only intermediate (Mw ~ 7) earthquakes in steep landscapes may reduce topography. Moreover, I illustrated how the net effect of earthquakes varies with depth or landscape steepness implying a complex and ambivalent role through the life of a mountain belt. Further I showed that faults producing a Gutenberg-Richter distribution of earthquake sizes, will limit topography over a larger range of fault sizes than faults producing repeated earthquakes with a characteristic size.

In many procedures of seismic risk mitigation, ground motion simulations are needed to test systems or improve their effectiveness. For example they may be used to estimate the level of ground shaking caused by future earthquakes. Good physical models for ground motion simulation are also thought to be important for hazard assessment, as they could close gaps in the existing datasets. Since the observed ground motion in nature shows a certain variability, part of which cannot be explained by macroscopic parameters such as magnitude or position of an earthquake, it would be desirable that a good physical model is not only able to produce one single seismogram, but also to reveal this natural variability.
In this thesis, I develop a method to model realistic ground motions in a way that is computationally simple to handle, permitting multiple scenario simulations. I focus on two aspects of ground motion modelling. First, I use deterministic wave propagation for the whole frequency range – from static deformation to approximately 10 Hz – but account for source variability by implementing self-similar slip distributions and rough fault interfaces. Second, I scale the source spectrum so that the modelled waveforms represent the correct radiated seismic energy. With this scaling I verify whether the energy magnitude is suitable as an explanatory variable, which characterises the amount of energy radiated at high frequencies – the advantage of the energy magnitude being that it can be deduced from observations, even in real-time.
Applications of the developed method for the 2008 Wenchuan (China) earthquake, the 2003 Tokachi-Oki (Japan) earthquake and the 1994 Northridge (California, USA) earthquake show that the fine source discretisations combined with the small scale source variability ensure that high frequencies are satisfactorily introduced, justifying the deterministic wave propagation approach even at high frequencies. I demonstrate that the energy magnitude can be used to calibrate the high-frequency content in ground motion simulations.
Because deterministic wave propagation is applied to the whole frequency range, the simulation method permits the quantification of the variability in ground motion due to parametric uncertainties in the source description. A large number of scenario simulations for an M=6 earthquake show that the roughness of the source as well as the distribution of fault dislocations have a minor effect on the simulated variability by diminishing directivity effects, while hypocenter location and rupture velocity more strongly influence the variability. The uncertainty in energy magnitude, however, leads to the largest differences of ground motion amplitude between different events, resulting in a variability which is larger than the one observed.
For the presented approach, this dissertation shows (i) the verification of the computational correctness of the code, (ii) the ability to reproduce observed ground motions and (iii) the validation of the simulated ground motion variability. Those three steps are essential to evaluate the suitability of the method for means of seismic risk mitigation.

Logging and large earthquakes are disturbances that may significantly affect hydrological and erosional processes and process rates, although in decisively different ways. Despite numerous studies that have documented the impacts of both deforestation and earthquakes on water and sediment fluxes, a number of details regarding the timing and type of de- and reforestation; seismic impacts on subsurface water fluxes; or the overall geomorphic work involved have remained unresolved. The main objective of this thesis is to address these shortcomings and to better understand and compare the hydrological and erosional process responses to such natural and man-made disturbances. To this end, south-central Chile provides an excellent natural laboratory owing to its high seismicity and the ongoing conversion of land into highly productive plantation forests. In this dissertation I combine paired catchment experiments, data analysis techniques, and physics-based modelling to investigate: 1) the effect of plantation forests on water resources, 2) the source and sink behavior of timber harvest areas in terms of overland flow generation and sediment fluxes, 3) geomorphic work and its efficiency as a function of seasonal logging, 4) possible hydrologic responses of the saturated zone to the 2010 Maule earthquake and 5) responses of the vadose zone to this earthquake. Re 1) In order to quantify the hydrologic impact of plantation forests, it is fundamental to first establish their water balances. I show that tree species is not significant in this regard, i.e. Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus do not trigger any decisive different hydrologic response. Instead, water consumption is more sensitive to soil-water supply for the local hydro-climatic conditions. Re 2) Contradictory opinions exist about whether timber harvest areas (THA) generate or capture overland flow and sediment. Although THAs contribute significantly to hydrology and sediment transport because of their spatial extent, little is known about the hydrological and erosional processes occurring on them. I show that THAs may act as both sources and sinks for overland flow, which in turn intensifies surface erosion. Above a rainfall intensity of ~20 mm/h, which corresponds to <10% of all rainfall, THAs may generate runoff whereas below that threshold they remain sinks. The overall contribution of Hortonian runoff is thus secondary considering the local rainfall regime. The bulk of both runoff and sediment is generated by Dunne, saturation excess, overland flow. I also show that logging may increase infiltrability on THAs which may cause an initial decrease in streamflow followed by an increase after the groundwater storage has been refilled. Re 3) I present changes in frequency-magnitude distributions following seasonal logging by applying Quantile Regression Forests at hitherto unprecedented detail. It is clearly the season that controls the hydro-geomorphic work efficiency of clear cutting. Logging, particularly dry seasonal logging, caused a shift of work efficiency towards less flashy and mere but more frequent moderate rainfall-runoff events. The sediment transport is dominated by Dunne overland flow which is consistent with physics-based modelling using WASA-SED. Re 4) It is well accepted that earthquakes may affect hydrological processes in the saturated zone. Assuming such flow conditions, consolidation of saturated saprolitic material is one possible response. Consolidation raises the hydraulic gradients which may explain the observed increase in discharge following earthquakes. By doing so, squeezed water saturates the soil which in turn increases the water accessible for plant transpiration. Post-seismic enhanced transpiration is reflected in the intensification of diurnal cycling. Re 5) Assuming unsaturated conditions, I present the first evidence that the vadose zone may also respond to seismic waves by releasing pore water which in turn feeds groundwater reservoirs. By doing so, water tables along the valley bottoms are elevated thus providing additional water resources to the riparian vegetation. By inverse modelling, the transient increase in transpiration is found to be 30-60%. Based on the data available, both hypotheses, are not testable. Finally, when comparing the hydrological and erosional effects of the Maule earthquake with the impact of planting exotic plantation forests, the overall observed earthquake effects are comparably small, and limited to short time scales.

Indonesia is one of the countries most prone to natural hazards. Complex interaction of several tectonic plates with high relative velocities leads to approximately two earthquakes with magnitude Mw>7 every year, being more than 15% of the events worldwide. Earthquakes with magnitude above 9 happen far more infrequently, but with catastrophic effects. The most severe consequences thereby arise from tsunamis triggered by these subduction-related earthquakes, as the Sumatra-Andaman event in 2004 showed. In order to enable efficient tsunami early warning, which includes the estimation of wave heights and arrival times, it is necessary to combine different types of real-time sensor data with numerical models of earthquake sources and tsunami propagation. This thesis was created as a result of the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System). It is based on five research papers and manuscripts. Main project-related task was the development of a database containing realistic earthquake scenarios for the Sunda Arc. This database provides initial conditions for tsunami propagation modeling used by the simulation system at the early warning center. An accurate discretization of the subduction geometry, consisting of 25x150 subfaults was constructed based on seismic data. Green’s functions, representing the deformational response to unit dip- and strike slip at the subfaults, were computed using a layered half-space approach. Different scaling relations for earthquake dimensions and slip distribution were implemented. Another project-related task was the further development of the ‘GPS-shield’ concept. It consists of a constellation of near field GPS-receivers, which are shown to be very valuable for tsunami early warning. The major part of this thesis is related to the geophysical interpretation of GPS data. Coseismic surface displacements caused by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake are inverted for slip at the fault. The effect of different Earth layer models is tested, favoring continental structure. The possibility of splay faulting is considered and shown to be a secondary order effect in respect to tsunamigenity for this event. Tsunami models based on source inversions are compared to satellite radar altimetry observations. Postseismic GPS time series are used to test a wide parameter range of uni- and biviscous rheological models of the asthenosphere. Steady-state Maxwell rheology is shown to be incompatible with near-field GPS data, unless large afterslip, amounting to more than 10% of the coseismic moment is assumed. In contrast, transient Burgers rheology is in agreement with data without the need for large aseismic afterslip. Comparison to postseismic geoid observation by the GRACE satellites reveals that even with afterslip, the model implementing Maxwell rheology results in amplitudes being too small, and thus supports a biviscous asthenosphere. A simple approach based on the assumption of quasi-static deformation propagation is introduced and proposed for inversion of coseismic near-field GPS time series. Application of this approach to observations from the 2004 Sumatra event fails to quantitatively reconstruct the rupture propagation, since a priori conditions are not fulfilled in this case. However, synthetic tests reveal the feasibility of such an approach for fast estimation of rupturing properties.

The seismicity of the Dead Sea fault zone (DSFZ) during the last two millennia is characterized by a number of damaging and partly devastating earthquakes. These events pose a considerable seismic hazard and seismic risk to Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, and Israel. The occurrence rates for large earthquakes along the DSFZ show indications to temporal changes in the long-term view. The aim of this thesis is to find out, if the occurrence rates of large earthquakes (Mw ≥ 6) in different parts of the DSFZ are time-dependent and how. The results are applied to probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHA) in the DSFZ and neighboring areas. Therefore, four time-dependent statistical models (distributions), including Weibull, Gamma, Lognormal and Brownian Passage Time (BPT), are applied beside the exponential distribution (Poisson process) as the classical time-independent model. In order to make sure, if the earthquake occurrence rate follows a unimodal or a multimodal form, a nonparametric bootstrap test of multimodality has been done. A modified method of weighted Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) is applied to estimate the parameters of the models. For the multimodal cases, an Expectation Maximization (EM) method is used in addition to the MLE method. The selection of the best model is done by two methods; the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) as well as a modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test. Finally, the confidence intervals of the estimated parameters corresponding to the candidate models are calculated, using the bootstrap confidence sets. In this thesis, earthquakes with Mw ≥ 6 along the DSFZ, with a width of about 20 km and inside 29.5° ≤ latitude ≤ 37° are considered as the dataset. The completeness of this dataset is calculated since 300 A.D. The DSFZ has been divided into three sub zones; the southern, the central and the northern sub zone respectively. The central and the northern sub zones have been investigated but not the southern sub zone, because of the lack of sufficient data. The results of the thesis for the central part of the DSFZ show that the earthquake occurrence rate does not significantly pursue a multimodal form. There is also no considerable difference between the time-dependent and time-independent models. Since the time-independent model is easier to interpret, the earthquake occurrence rate in this sub zone has been estimated under the exponential distribution assumption (Poisson process) and will be considered as time-independent with the amount of 9.72 * 10-3 events/year. The northern part of the DSFZ is a special case, where the last earthquake has occurred in 1872 (about 137 years ago). However, the mean recurrence time of Mw ≥ 6 events in this area is about 51 years. Moreover, about 96 percent of the observed earthquake inter-event times (the time between two successive earthquakes) in the dataset regarding to this sub zone are smaller than 137 years. Therefore, it is a zone with an overdue earthquake. The results for this sub zone verify that the earthquake occurrence rate is strongly time-dependent, especially shortly after an earthquake occurrence. A bimodal Weibull-Weibull model has been selected as the best fit for this sub zone. The earthquake occurrence rate, corresponding to the selected model, is a smooth function of time and reveals two clusters within the time after an earthquake occurrence. The first cluster begins right after an earthquake occurrence, lasts about 80 years, and is explicitly time-dependent. The occurrence rate, regarding to this cluster, is considerably lower right after an earthquake occurrence, increases strongly during the following ten years and reaches its maximum about 0.024 events/year, then decreases over the next 70 years to its minimum about 0.0145 events/year. The second cluster begins 80 years after an earthquake occurrence and lasts until the next earthquake occurs. The earthquake occurrence rate, corresponding to this cluster, increases extremely slowly, such as it can be considered as an almost constant rate about 0.015 events/year. The results are applied to calculate the time-dependent PSHA in the northern part of the DSFZ and neighbouring areas.

Crustal deformation can be the result of volcanic and tectonic activity such as fault dislocation and magma intrusion. The crustal deformation may precede and/or succeed the earthquake occurrence and eruption. Mitigating the associated hazard, continuous monitoring of the crustal deformation accordingly has become an important task for geo-observatories and fast response systems. Due to highly non-linear behavior of the crustal deformation fields in time and space, which are not always measurable using conventional geodetic methods (e.g., Leveling), innovative techniques of monitoring and analysis are required. In this thesis I describe novel methods to improve the ability for precise and accurate mapping the spatiotemporal surface deformation field using multi acquisitions of satellite radar data. Furthermore, to better understand the source of such spatiotemporal deformation fields, I present novel static and time dependent model inversion approaches. Almost any interferograms include areas where the signal decorrelates and is distorted by atmospheric delay. In this thesis I detail new analysis methods to reduce the limitations of conventional InSAR, by combining the benefits of advanced InSAR methods such as the permanent scatterer InSAR (PSI) and the small baseline subsets (SBAS) with a wavelet based data filtering scheme. This novel InSAR time series methodology is applied, for instance, to monitor the non-linear deformation processes at Hawaii Island. The radar phase change at Hawaii is found to be due to intrusions, eruptions, earthquakes and flank movement processes and superimposed by significant environmental artifacts (e.g., atmospheric). The deformation field, I obtained using the new InSAR analysis method, is in good agreement with continuous GPS data. This provides an accurate spatiotemporal deformation field at Hawaii, which allows time dependent source modeling. Conventional source modeling methods usually deal with static deformation field, while retrieving the dynamics of the source requires more sophisticated time dependent optimization approaches. This problem I address by combining Monte Carlo based optimization approaches with a Kalman Filter, which provides the model parameters of the deformation source consistent in time. I found there are numerous deformation sources at Hawaii Island which are spatiotemporally interacting, such as volcano inflation is associated to changes in the rifting behavior, and temporally linked to silent earthquakes. I applied these new methods to other tectonic and volcanic terrains, most of which revealing the importance of associated or coupled deformation sources. The findings are 1) the relation between deep and shallow hydrothermal and magmatic sources underneath the Campi Flegrei volcano, 2) gravity-driven deformation at Damavand volcano, 3) fault interaction associated with the 2010 Haiti earthquake, 4) independent block wise flank motion at the Hilina Fault system, Kilauea, and 5) interaction between salt diapir and the 2005 Qeshm earthquake in southern Iran. This thesis, written in cumulative form including 9 manuscripts published or under review in peer reviewed journals, improves the techniques for InSAR time series analysis and source modeling and shows the mutual dependence between adjacent deformation sources. These findings allow more realistic estimation of the hazard associated with complex volcanic and tectonic systems.

We study the rupture propagation of the 2008/05/12 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake. We apply array techniques such as semblance vespagram analysis to P waves recorded at seismic broadband station within 30-100° epicentral distance. By combination of multiple large aperture station groups spatial and temporal resolution is enhanced and problems due source directivity and source mechanism are avoided. We find that seismic energy was released for at least 110 s. Propagating unilaterally at sub-shear rupture velocity of about 2.5 km/s in NE direction, the earthquake reaches a lateral extent of more than 300 km. Whereas high semblance during within 70 s from rupture start indicates simple propagation more complex source processes are indicated thereafter by decreases coherency in seismograms. At this stage of the event coherency is low but significantly above noise level. We emphasize that first result of our computations where obtain within 30 minutes after source time by using an atomized algorithm. This procedure has been routinely and globally applied to major earthquakes. Results are made public through internet.

An der Universität Potsdam wird seit 2008 ein automatisiertes Verfahren angewandt, um Bruchparamter großer Erdbeben in quasi-Echtzeit, d.h. wenige Minuten nachdem sich das Beben ereignet hat, zu bestimmen und der Öffentlichkeit via Internet zur Verfügung zu stellen. Es ist vorgesehen, das System in das Deutsch-Indonesische Tsunamifrühwarnsystem (GITEWS) zu integrieren, für das es speziell konfiguriert ist. Wir bestimmen insbesondere die Dauer und die Ausdehnung des Erdbebens, sowie dessen Bruchgeschwindigkeit und -richtung. Dabei benutzen wir die Seismogramme der zuerst eintreffenden P Wellen vom Breitbandstationen in teleseimischer Entfernung vom Beben sowie herkömmliche Arrayverfahren in teilweise modifizierter Form. Die Semblance wir als Ähnlichkeitsmaß verwendet, um Seismogramme eines Stationsnetzes zu vergleichen. Im Falle eines Erdbebens ist die Semblance unter Berücksichtigung des Hypozentrums zur Herdzeit und während des Bruchvorgangs deutlich zeitlich und räumlich erhöht und konzentriert. Indem wir die Ergebnisse verschiedener Stationsnetzwerke kombinieren, erreichen wir Unabhängigkeit von der Herdcharakteristik und eine raum-zeitliche Auflösung, die es erlaubt die o.g. Parameter abzuleiten. In unserem Beitrag skizzieren wir die Methode. Anhand der beiden M8.0 Benkulu Erdbeben (Sumatra, Indonesien) vom 12.09.2007 und dem M8.0 Sichuan Ereignis (China) vom 12.05.2008 demonstrieren wir Auflösungsmöglichkeiten und vergleichen die Ergebnisse der automatisierten Echtzeitanwendung mit nachträglichen Berechnungen. Weiterhin stellen wir eine Internetseite zur Verfügung, die die Ergebnisse präsentiert und animiert. Diese kann z.B. in geowissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen an Computerterminals gezeigt werden. Die Internetauftritte haben die folgenden Adressen: http://www.geo.uni-potsdam.de/arbeitsgruppen/Geophysik_Seismologie/forschung/ruptrack/openday http://www.geo.uni-potsdam.de/arbeitsgruppen/Geophysik_Seismologie/forschung/ruptrack