On new allotropes and nanostructures of carbon nitrides

Über neue Allotrope und Nanostrukturen von Karbonitriden

  • In the first section of the thesis graphitic carbon nitride was for the first time synthesised using the high-temperature condensation of dicyandiamide (DCDA) – a simple molecular precursor – in a eutectic salt melt of lithium chloride and potassium chloride. The extent of condensation, namely next to complete conversion of all reactive end groups, was verified by elemental microanalysis and vibrational spectroscopy. TEM- and SEM-measurements gave detailed insight into the well-defined morphology of these organic crystals, which are not based on 0D or 1D constituents like known molecular or short-chain polymeric crystals but on the packing motif of extended 2D frameworks. The proposed crystal structure of this g-C3N4 species was derived in analogy to graphite by means of extensive powder XRD studies, indexing and refinement. It is based on sheets of hexagonally arranged s-heptazine (C6N7) units that are held together by covalent bonds between C and N atoms. These sheets stack in a graphitic, staggered fashion adopting an AB-motif,In the first section of the thesis graphitic carbon nitride was for the first time synthesised using the high-temperature condensation of dicyandiamide (DCDA) – a simple molecular precursor – in a eutectic salt melt of lithium chloride and potassium chloride. The extent of condensation, namely next to complete conversion of all reactive end groups, was verified by elemental microanalysis and vibrational spectroscopy. TEM- and SEM-measurements gave detailed insight into the well-defined morphology of these organic crystals, which are not based on 0D or 1D constituents like known molecular or short-chain polymeric crystals but on the packing motif of extended 2D frameworks. The proposed crystal structure of this g-C3N4 species was derived in analogy to graphite by means of extensive powder XRD studies, indexing and refinement. It is based on sheets of hexagonally arranged s-heptazine (C6N7) units that are held together by covalent bonds between C and N atoms. These sheets stack in a graphitic, staggered fashion adopting an AB-motif, as corroborated by powder X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This study was contrasted with one of many popular – yet unsuccessful – approaches in the last 30 years of scientific literature to perform the condensation of an extended carbon nitride species through synthesis in the bulk. The second section expands the repertoire of available salt melts introducing the lithium bromide and potassium bromide eutectic as an excellent medium to obtain a new phase of graphitic carbon nitride. The combination of SEM, TEM, PXRD and electron diffraction reveals that the new graphitic carbon nitride phase stacks in an ABA’ motif forming unprecedentedly large crystals. This section seizes the notion of the preceding chapter, that condensation in a eutectic salt melt is the key to obtain a high degree of conversion mainly through a solvatory effect. At the close of this chapter ionothermal synthesis is seen established as a powerful tool to overcome the inherent kinetic problems of solid state reactions such as incomplete polymerisation and condensation in the bulk especially when the temperature requirement of the reaction in question falls into the proverbial “no man’s land” of classical solvents, i.e. above 250 to 300 °C. The following section puts the claim to the test, that the crystalline carbon nitrides obtained from a salt melt are indeed graphitic. A typical property of graphite – namely the accessibility of its interplanar space for guest molecules – is transferred to the graphitic carbon nitride system. Metallic potassium and graphitic carbon nitride are converted to give the potassium intercalation compound, K(C6N8)3 designated according to its stoichiometry and proposed crystal structure. Reaction of the intercalate with aqueous solvents triggers the exfoliation of the graphitic carbon nitride material and – for the first time – enables the access of singular (or multiple) carbon nitride sheets analogous to graphene as seen in the formation of sheets, bundles and scrolls of carbon nitride in TEM imaging. The thus exfoliated sheets form a stable, strongly fluorescent solution in aqueous media, which shows no sign in UV/Vis spectroscopy that the aromaticity of individual sheets was subject to degradation. The final section expands on the mechanism underlying the formation of graphitic carbon nitride by literally expanding the distance between the covalently linked heptazine units which constitute these materials. A close examination of all proposed reaction mechanisms to-date in the light of exhaustive DSC/MS experiments highlights the possibility that the heptazine unit can be formed from smaller molecules, even if some of the designated leaving groups (such as ammonia) are substituted by an element, R, which later on remains linked to the nascent heptazine. Furthermore, it is suggested that the key functional groups in the process are the triazine- (Tz) and the carbonitrile- (CN) group. On the basis of these assumptions, molecular precursors are tailored which encompass all necessary functional groups to form a central heptazine unit of threefold, planar symmetry and then still retain outward functionalities for self-propagated condensation in all three directions. Two model systems based on a para-aryl (ArCNTz) and para-biphenyl (BiPhCNTz) precursors are devised via a facile synthetic procedure and then condensed in an ionothermal process to yield the heptazine based frameworks, HBF-1 and HBF-2. Due to the structural motifs of their molecular precursors, individual sheets of HBF-1 and HBF-2 span cavities of 14.2 Å and 23.0 Å respectively which makes both materials attractive as potential organic zeolites. Crystallographic analysis confirms the formation of ABA’ layered, graphitic systems, and the extent of condensation is confirmed as next-to-perfect by elemental analysis and vibrational spectroscopy.show moreshow less
  • Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Synthese und Charakterisierung neuer Allotropen und Nanostrukturen von Karbonitriden und berührt einige ihrer möglichen Anwendungen. Alle gezeigten, ausgedehnten, kovalent verbundenen Karbonitridgerüste wurden in einem ionothermalen Syntheseprozess – einer Hochtemperaturbehandlung in einem eutektischen Salzgemisch als ungewöhnlichem Lösungsmittel – aus einfachen Präkursormolkülen erzeugt. Der Kondensationsmechanismus folgt einer temperaturinduzierten Deaminierung und Bildung einer ausgedehnten, aromatischen Einheit; des dreifach substituierten Heptazines. Die Dissertation folgt vier übergreifenden Themen, beginnend mit der Einleitung in Karbonitridsysteme und der Suche nach einem Material, welches einzig aus Kohlenstoff und Stickstoff aufgebaut ist – einer Suche, die 1834 mit den Beobachtungen Justus von Liebigs „über einige Stickstoffverbindungen“ begann. Der erste Abschnitt zeigt die erfolgreiche Synthese von graphitischem Karbonitrid (g-C3N4); einer Spezies, welche aufDie vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Synthese und Charakterisierung neuer Allotropen und Nanostrukturen von Karbonitriden und berührt einige ihrer möglichen Anwendungen. Alle gezeigten, ausgedehnten, kovalent verbundenen Karbonitridgerüste wurden in einem ionothermalen Syntheseprozess – einer Hochtemperaturbehandlung in einem eutektischen Salzgemisch als ungewöhnlichem Lösungsmittel – aus einfachen Präkursormolkülen erzeugt. Der Kondensationsmechanismus folgt einer temperaturinduzierten Deaminierung und Bildung einer ausgedehnten, aromatischen Einheit; des dreifach substituierten Heptazines. Die Dissertation folgt vier übergreifenden Themen, beginnend mit der Einleitung in Karbonitridsysteme und der Suche nach einem Material, welches einzig aus Kohlenstoff und Stickstoff aufgebaut ist – einer Suche, die 1834 mit den Beobachtungen Justus von Liebigs „über einige Stickstoffverbindungen“ begann. Der erste Abschnitt zeigt die erfolgreiche Synthese von graphitischem Karbonitrid (g-C3N4); einer Spezies, welche auf Schichten hexagonal angeordneter s-Heptazineinheiten beruht, die durch kovalente Bindungen zwischen C- und N-Atomen zusammengehalten werden, und welche in einer graphitischen, verschobenen Art und Weise gestapelt sind. Der zweite Abschnitt berührt die Vielfalt von Salzschmelzensystemen, die für die Ionothermalsynthese geeignet sind und zeigt auf, dass die bloße Veränderung der Salzschmelze eine andere Kristallphase des graphitischen Karbonitrides ergibt – das g-C3N4-mod2. Im dritten Abschnitt wird vom Graphit bekannte Interkallationschemie auf das g-C3N4 angewendet, um eine Kalliuminterkallationsverbindung des graphitischen Karbonitirdes zu erhalten (K(C6N8)3). Diese Verbindung kann in Analogie zum graphitischen System leicht exfoliiert werden, um Bündel von Karbonitridnanoschichten zu erhalten, und weist darüberhinaus interessante optische Eigenschaften auf. Der vierte und letzte Abschnitt handelt von der Einführung von Aryl- und Biphenylbrücken in das Karbonitridmaterial durch rationale Synthese der Präkursormoleküle. Diese ergeben die heptazinbasierten Frameworks, HBF-1 und HBF-2 – zwei kovalente, organische Gerüste.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Michael Janus Bojdys
URN:urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-41236
Advisor:Markus Antonietti
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language:English
Year of Completion:2009
Publishing Institution:Universität Potsdam
Granting Institution:Universität Potsdam
Date of final exam:2009/07/06
Release Date:2010/02/22
Tag:Heptazine; Karbonnitrid Ionothermalsynthese; Salzschmelze; Triazin; kovalente Rahmenbedingungen; mehrschichtige Verbindungen
carbon nitride; covalent frameworks; heptazine; ionothermal synthesis; layered compounds; salt melt; triazine
RVK - Regensburg Classification:VE 5070
RVK - Regensburg Classification:VE 9857
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Chemie
Extern / Extern
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 54 Chemie / 540 Chemie und zugeordnete Wissenschaften
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung, Nicht kommerziell, Weitergabe zu gleichen Bedingungen 3.0 Deutschland