On Es-spread effects in the ionosphere connected to earthquakes
- In the present work, phenomena in the ionosphere are studied, which are connected with earthquakes (16 events) having a depth of less than 50 km and a magnitude M larger than 4. Analysed are night-time Es-spread effects using data of the vertical sounding station Petropavlovsk- Kanchatsky (φ=53.0°, λ=158.7°) from May 2004 until August 2004 registered every 15 minutes. It is found that the maximum distance of the earthquake from the sounding station, where pre-seismic phenomena are yet observable, depends on the magnitude of the earthquake. Further it is shown that 1-2 days before the earthquakes, in the premidnight hours, the appearance of Es-spread increases. The reliability of this increase amounts to 0.95.