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First NuSTAR observations of MRK 501 within a radio to TeV multi-instrument campaign

A. Furniss, K. Noda, S. Boggs, J. Chiang, F. Christensen, W. Craig, P. Giommi, C. Hailey, F. Harisson, G. Madejski, K. Nalewajko, M. Perri, D. Stern, M. Urry, F. Verrecchia, W. Zhang, M. L. Ahnen, S. Ansoldi, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, A. Babic, B. Banerjee, P. Bangale, U. Barres de Almeida, J. A. Barrio, J. Becerra Gonzalez, W. Bednarek, E. Bernardini, B. Biasuzzi, A. Biland, O. Blanch, S. Bonnefoy, G. Bonnoli, F. Borracci, T. Bretz, E. Carmona, A. Carosi, A. Chatterjee, R. Clavero, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, G. De Caneva, B. De Lotto, E. de Ona Wilhelmi, C. Delgado Mendez, F. Di Pierro, Dijana Dominis Prester, D. Dorner, M. Doro, S. Einecke, D. Eisenacher Glawion, D. Elsaesser, A. Fernandez-Barral, D. Fidalgo, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, K. Frantzen, C. Fruck, D. Galindo, R. J. Garcia Lopez, M. Garczarczyk, D. Garrido Terrats, M. Gaug, P. Giammaria, N. Godinovic, A. Gonzalez Munoz, D. Guberman, Y. Hanabata, M. Hayashida, J. Herrera, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, G. Hughes, W. Idec, H. Kellermann, K. Kodani, Y. Konno, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, A. La Barbera, D. Lelas, N. Lewandowska, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, F. Longo, M. Lopez, R. Lopez-Coto, A. Lopez-Oramas, E. Lorenz, P. Majumdar, M. Makariev, K. Mallot, G. Maneva, M. Manganaro, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, B. Marcote, M. Mariotti, M. Martinez, D. Mazin, U. Menzel, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, D. Nakajima, V. Neustroev, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Nievas Rosillo, K. Nilsson, K. Nishijima, R. Orito, A. Overkemping, S. Paiano, J. Palacio, M. Palatiello, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, X. Paredes-Fortuny, M. Persic, J. Poutanen, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, I. Puljak, R. Reinthal, W. Rhode, M. Ribo, J. Rico, J. Rodriguez Garcia, T. Saito, K. Saito, K. Satalecka, V. Scapin, C. Schultz, T. Schweizer, S. N. Shore, A. Sillanpaa, J. Sitarek, I. Snidaric, D. Sobczynska, A. Stamerra, T. Steinbring, M. Strzys, L. Takalo, H. Takami, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzic, D. Tescaro, M. Teshima, J. Thaele, D. F. Torres, T. Toyama, A. Treves, V. Verguilov, I. Vovk, M. Will, R. Zanin, A. Archer, W. Benbow, R. Bird, J. Biteau, V. Bugaev, J. V. Cardenzana, M. Cerruti, Xuhui Chen, L. Ciupik, M. P. Connolly, W. Cui, H. J. Dickinson, J. Dumm, J. D. Eisch, A. Falcone, Q. Feng, J. P. Finley, H. Fleischhack, P. Fortin, L. Fortson, L. Gerard, G. H. Gillanders, S. Griffin, S. T. Griffiths, J. Grube, G. Gyuk, Nils Hakansson, J. Holder, T. B. Humensky, C. A. Johnson, P. Kaaret, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, M. Krause, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, T. T. Y. Lin, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, K. Meagher, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, D. Nieto, R. A. Ong, N. Park, D. Petry, Martin Pohl, A. Popkow, K. Ragan, G. Ratliff, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, G. T. Richards, E. Roache, M. Santander, G. H. Sembroski, K. Shahinyan, D. Staszak, Igor Telezhinsky, J. V. Tucci, J. Tyler, V. V. Vassiliev, S. P. Wakely, O. M. Weiner, A. Weinstein, Alina Wilhelm, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer, O. Vince, L. Fuhrmann, E. Angelakis, V. Karamanavis, I. Myserlis, T. P. Krichbaum, J. A. Zensus, H. Ungerechts, A. Sievers, R. Bachev, M. Boettcher, W. P. Chen, G. Damljanovic, C. Eswaraiah, T. Guver, T. Hovatta, Z. Hughes, S. I. Ibryamov, M. D. Joner, B. Jordan, S. G. Jorstad, M. Joshi, J. Kataoka, O. M. Kurtanidze, S. O. Kurtanidze, A. Lahteenmaki, G. Latev, H. C. Lin, V. M. Larionov, A. A. Mokrushina, D. A. Morozova, M. G. Nikolashvili, C. M. Raiteri, V. Ramakrishnan, A. C. R. Readhead, A. C. Sadun, L. A. Sigua, E. H. Semkov, A. Strigachev, J. Tammi, M. Tornikoski, Y. V. Troitskaya, I. S. Troitsky, M. Villata

  • We report on simultaneous broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar Markarian 501 between 2013 April 1 and August 10, including the first detailed characterization of the synchrotron peak with Swift and NuSTAR. During the campaign, the nearby BL Lac object was observed in both a quiescent and an elevated state. The broadband campaign includes observations with NuSTAR, MAGIC, VERITAS, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope and UV Optical Telescope, various ground-based optical instruments, including the GASP-WEBT program, as well as radio observations by OVRO, Metsahovi, and the F-Gamma consortium. Some of the MAGIC observations were affected by a sand layer from the Saharan desert, and had to be corrected using event-by-event corrections derived with a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) facility. This is the first time that LIDAR information is used to produce a physics result with Cherenkov Telescope data taken during adverse atmospheric conditions, and hence sets a precedent for the current and futureWe report on simultaneous broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar Markarian 501 between 2013 April 1 and August 10, including the first detailed characterization of the synchrotron peak with Swift and NuSTAR. During the campaign, the nearby BL Lac object was observed in both a quiescent and an elevated state. The broadband campaign includes observations with NuSTAR, MAGIC, VERITAS, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope and UV Optical Telescope, various ground-based optical instruments, including the GASP-WEBT program, as well as radio observations by OVRO, Metsahovi, and the F-Gamma consortium. Some of the MAGIC observations were affected by a sand layer from the Saharan desert, and had to be corrected using event-by-event corrections derived with a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) facility. This is the first time that LIDAR information is used to produce a physics result with Cherenkov Telescope data taken during adverse atmospheric conditions, and hence sets a precedent for the current and future ground-based gamma-ray instruments. The NuSTAR instrument provides unprecedented sensitivity in hard X-rays, showing the source to display a spectral energy distribution (SED) between 3 and 79 keV consistent with a log-parabolic spectrum and hard X-ray variability on hour timescales. None (of the four extended NuSTAR observations) show evidence of the onset of inverse-Compton emission at hard X-ray energies. We apply a single-zone equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model to five simultaneous broadband SEDs. We find that the SSC model can reproduce the observed broadband states through a decrease in the magnetic field strength coinciding with an increase in the luminosity and hardness of the relativistic leptons responsible for the high-energy emission.show moreshow less

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Author:A. Furniss, K. Noda, S. Boggs, J. Chiang, F. Christensen, W. Craig, P. Giommi, C. Hailey, F. Harisson, G. Madejski, K. Nalewajko, M. Perri, D. Stern, M. Urry, F. Verrecchia, W. Zhang, M. L. Ahnen, S. Ansoldi, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, A. Babic, B. Banerjee, P. Bangale, U. Barres de Almeida, J. A. Barrio, J. Becerra Gonzalez, W. Bednarek, E. Bernardini, B. Biasuzzi, A. Biland, O. Blanch, S. Bonnefoy, G. Bonnoli, F. Borracci, T. Bretz, E. Carmona, A. Carosi, A. Chatterjee, R. Clavero, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, P. Da Vela, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, G. De Caneva, B. De Lotto, E. de Ona Wilhelmi, C. Delgado Mendez, F. Di Pierro, Dijana Dominis PresterORCiD, D. Dorner, M. Doro, S. Einecke, D. Eisenacher Glawion, D. Elsaesser, A. Fernandez-Barral, D. Fidalgo, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, K. Frantzen, C. Fruck, D. Galindo, R. J. Garcia Lopez, M. Garczarczyk, D. Garrido Terrats, M. Gaug, P. Giammaria, N. Godinovic, A. Gonzalez Munoz, D. Guberman, Y. Hanabata, M. Hayashida, J. Herrera, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, G. Hughes, W. Idec, H. Kellermann, K. Kodani, Y. Konno, H. Kubo, J. Kushida, A. La Barbera, D. Lelas, N. Lewandowska, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, F. Longo, M. Lopez, R. Lopez-Coto, A. Lopez-Oramas, E. Lorenz, P. Majumdar, M. Makariev, K. Mallot, G. Maneva, M. Manganaro, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, B. Marcote, M. Mariotti, M. Martinez, D. Mazin, U. Menzel, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, D. Nakajima, V. Neustroev, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Nievas Rosillo, K. Nilsson, K. Nishijima, R. Orito, A. Overkemping, S. Paiano, J. Palacio, M. Palatiello, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, X. Paredes-Fortuny, M. Persic, J. Poutanen, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, I. Puljak, R. Reinthal, W. Rhode, M. Ribo, J. Rico, J. Rodriguez Garcia, T. Saito, K. Saito, K. Satalecka, V. Scapin, C. Schultz, T. Schweizer, S. N. Shore, A. Sillanpaa, J. Sitarek, I. Snidaric, D. Sobczynska, A. Stamerra, T. Steinbring, M. Strzys, L. Takalo, H. Takami, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzic, D. Tescaro, M. Teshima, J. Thaele, D. F. Torres, T. Toyama, A. Treves, V. Verguilov, I. Vovk, M. Will, R. Zanin, A. Archer, W. Benbow, R. Bird, J. Biteau, V. Bugaev, J. V. Cardenzana, M. Cerruti, Xuhui Chen, L. Ciupik, M. P. Connolly, W. Cui, H. J. Dickinson, J. Dumm, J. D. Eisch, A. Falcone, Q. Feng, J. P. Finley, H. Fleischhack, P. Fortin, L. Fortson, L. Gerard, G. H. Gillanders, S. Griffin, S. T. Griffiths, J. Grube, G. Gyuk, Nils Hakansson, J. Holder, T. B. Humensky, C. A. Johnson, P. Kaaret, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, M. Krause, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, T. T. Y. Lin, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, K. Meagher, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, D. Nieto, R. A. Ong, N. Park, D. Petry, Martin PohlORCiDGND, A. Popkow, K. Ragan, G. Ratliff, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, G. T. Richards, E. Roache, M. Santander, G. H. Sembroski, K. Shahinyan, D. Staszak, Igor Telezhinsky, J. V. Tucci, J. Tyler, V. V. Vassiliev, S. P. Wakely, O. M. Weiner, A. Weinstein, Alina Wilhelm, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer, O. Vince, L. Fuhrmann, E. Angelakis, V. Karamanavis, I. Myserlis, T. P. Krichbaum, J. A. Zensus, H. Ungerechts, A. Sievers, R. Bachev, M. Boettcher, W. P. Chen, G. Damljanovic, C. Eswaraiah, T. Guver, T. Hovatta, Z. Hughes, S. I. Ibryamov, M. D. Joner, B. Jordan, S. G. Jorstad, M. Joshi, J. Kataoka, O. M. Kurtanidze, S. O. Kurtanidze, A. Lahteenmaki, G. Latev, H. C. Lin, V. M. Larionov, A. A. Mokrushina, D. A. Morozova, M. G. Nikolashvili, C. M. Raiteri, V. Ramakrishnan, A. C. R. Readhead, A. C. Sadun, L. A. Sigua, E. H. Semkov, A. Strigachev, J. Tammi, M. Tornikoski, Y. V. Troitskaya, I. S. Troitsky, M. Villata
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/812/1/65
ISSN:0004-637X (print)
ISSN:1538-4357 (online)
Parent Title (English):The astrophysical journal : an international review of spectroscopy and astronomical physics
Publisher:IOP Publ. Ltd.
Place of publication:Bristol
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2015
Year of Completion:2015
Creating Corporation:NuSTAR Team, MAGIC Collaboration, VERITAS Collaboration, F-Gamma Consortium
Release Date:2017/03/27
Tag:BL Lacertae objects: general; X-rays: galaxies; galaxies: individual (Markarian 501)
Volume:812
Issue:1
Pagenumber:22
Funder:NASA [NNG08FD60C, NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G]; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; German BMBF; German MPG; Italian INFN; Italian INAF; Swiss National Fund SNF; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO; Japanese JSPS; Japanese MEXT; Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa project of the Spanish Consolider-Ingenio programme [SEV-2012-0234]; Academy of Finland [268740]; Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project [09/176]; University of Rijeka Project [13.12.1.3.02]; DFG Collaborative Research Centers [SFB823/C4, SFB876/C3]; Polish MNiSzW grant [745/N-HESS-MAGIC/2010/0]; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science; U.S. National Science Foundation; Smithsonian Institution; NSERC in Canada; Science Foundation Ireland [SFI 10/RFP/AST2748]; STFC in the U.K; INSU/CNRS (France); MPG (Germany); IGN (Spain); International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn; NSF [AST-0808050, AST-1109911]; Istanbul University [49429, 48285]; Bilim Akademisi (BAGEP program); TUBITAK [13AT100-431, 13AT100-466, 13AT60-430]; Russian RFBR grant [15-02-00949]; St. Petersburg University research grant [6.38.335.2015]; NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant [NNX14AQ58G]; Swift Guest Investigator grant [NNX14AI96G]; BU; Lowell Observatory; Scientific Research Fund of the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Sciences [DO 02-137 (BIn-13/09)]; Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation [FR/577/6-320/13]; Institute of Astronomy; Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia [176011, 176004, 176021]; CPAN project of the Spanish Consolider-Ingenio programme [CSD2007-00042]; MultiDark project of the Spanish Consolider-Ingenio programme [CSD2009-00064]; International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Physik und Astronomie
Peer Review:Referiert