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The 2010 very high energy gamma-ray flare and 10 years ofmulti-wavelength oservations of M 87

Attila Abramowski, F. Acero, Felix Aharonian, A. G. Akhperjanian, Gisela Anton, A. Balzer, A. Barnacka, U. Barres de Almeida, Y. Becherini, J. Becker, B. Behera, K. Bernloehr, E. Birsin, J. Biteau, A. Bochow, C. Boisson, J. Bolmont, P. Bordas, J. Brucker, F. Brun, P. Brun, T. Bulik, I. Buesching, S. Carrigan, S. Casanova, M. Cerruti, P. M. Chadwick, A. Charbonnier, R. C. G. Chaves, A. Cheesebrough, A. C. Clapson, G. Coignet, G. Cologna, J. Conrad, M. Dalton, M. K. Daniel, I. D. Davids, B. Degrange, C. Deil, H. J. Dickinson, A. Djannati-Ataï, W. Domainko, L. O'C. Drury, G. Dubus, K. Dutson, J. Dyks, M. Dyrda, K. Egberts, P. Eger, P. Espigat, L. Fallon, C. Farnier, S. Fegan, F. Feinstein, M. V. Fernandes, A. Fiasson, G. Fontaine, A. Foerster, M. Fuessling, Y. A. Gallant, H. Gast, L. Gerard, D. Gerbig, B. Giebels, J. F. Glicenstein, B. Glueck, P. Goret, D. Goering, S. Haeffner, J. D. Hague, D. Hampf, M. Hauser, S. Heinz, G. Heinzelmann, G. Henri, G. Hermann, J. A. Hinton, A. Hoffmann, W. Hofmann, P. Hofverberg, M. Holler, D. Horns, A. Jacholkowska, O. C. de Jager, C. Jahn, M. Jamrozy, I. Jung, M. A. Kastendieck, K. Katarzynski, U. Katz, S. Kaufmann, D. Keogh, D. Khangulyan, B. Khelifi, D. Klochkov, W. Kluzniak, T. Kneiske, Nu. Komin, K. Kosack, R. Kossakowski, H. Laffon, G. Lamanna, D. Lennarz, T. Lohse, A. Lopatin, C. -C. Lu, V. Marandon, A. Marcowith, J. Masbou, D. Maurin, N. Maxted, M. Mayer, T. J. L. McComb, M. C. Medina, J. Mehault, R. Moderski, E. Moulin, C. L. Naumann, M. Naumann-Godo, M. de Naurois, D. Nedbal, D. Nekrassov, N. Nguyen, B. Nicholas, J. Niemiec, S. J. Nolan, S. Ohm, E. de Ona Wilhelmi, B. Opitz, M. Ostrowski, I. Oya, M. Panter, M. Paz Arribas, G. Pedaletti, G. Pelletier, P. -O. Petrucci, S. Pita, G. Puehlhofer, M. Punch, A. Quirrenbach, M. Raue, S. M. Rayner, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, M. Renaud, R. de los Reyes, F. Rieger, J. Ripken, L. Rob, S. Rosier-Lees, G. Rowell, B. Rudak, C. B. Rulten, J. Ruppel, V. Sahakian, D. A. Sanchez, A. Santangelo, R. Schlickeiser, F. M. Schoeck, A. Schulz, U. Schwanke, S. Schwarzburg, S. Schwemmer, F. Sheidaei, J. L. Skilton, H. Sol, G. Spengler, L. Stawarz, R. Steenkamp, C. Stegmann, F. Stinzing, K. Stycz, I. Sushch, A. Szostek, J. -P. Tavernet, R. Terrier, M. Tluczykont, K. Valerius, C. van Eldik, G. Vasileiadis, C. Venter, J. P. Vialle, A. Viana, P. Vincent, H. J. Voelk, F. Volpe, S. Vorobiov, M. Vorster, S. J. Wagner, M. Ward, R. White, A. Wierzcholska, M. Zacharias, A. Zajczyk, A. A. Zdziarski, A. Zech, H. -S. Zechlin, J. Aleksic, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, M. Backes, J. A. Barrio, D. Bastieri, J. Becerra Gonzalez, W. Bednarek, A. Berdyugin, K. Berger, E. Bernardini, A. Biland, O. Blanch, R. K. Bock, A. Boller, G. Bonnoli, D. Borla Tridon, I. Braun, T. Bretz, A. Canellas, E. Carmona, A. Carosi, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, L. Cossio, S. Covino, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, E. De Cea del Pozo, B. De Lotto, C. Delgado Mendez, A. Diago Ortega, M. Doert, A. Dominguez, Dijana Dominis Prester, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, D. Ferenc, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, C. Fruck, R. J. Garcia Lopez, M. Garczarczyk, D. Garrido, G. Giavitto, N. Godinovic, D. Hadasch, D. Haefner, A. Herrero, D. Hildebrand, D. Hoehne-Moench, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, B. Huber, T. Jogler, S. Klepser, T. Kraehenbuehl, J. Krause, A. La Barbera, D. Lelas, E. Leonardo, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, M. Lopez, E. Lorenz, M. Makariev, G. Maneva, N. Mankuzhiyil, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, M. Mariotti, M. Martinez, D. Mazin, M. Meucci, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, H. Miyamoto, J. Moldon, A. Moralejo, P. Munar, D. Nieto, K. Nilsson, R. Orito, I. Oya, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, S. Pardo, J. M. Paredes, S. Partini, M. Pasanen, F. Pauss, M. A. Perez-Torres, M. Persic, L. Peruzzo, M. Pilia, J. Pochon, F. Prada, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, I. Puljak, I. Reichardt, R. Reinthal, W. Rhode, M. Ribo, J. Rico, S. Ruegamer, A. Saggion, K. Saito, T. Y. Saito, M. Salvati, K. Satalecka, V. Scalzotto, V. Scapin, C. Schultz, T. Schweizer, M. Shayduk, S. N. Shore, A. Sillanpaa, J. Sitarek, D. Sobczynska, F. Spanier, S. Spiro, A. Stamerra, B. Steinke, J. Storz, N. Strah, T. Suric, L. Takalo, H. Takami, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzic, D. Tescaro, M. Teshima, M. Thom, O. Tibolla, D. F. Torres, A. Treves, H. Vankov, P. Vogler, R. M. Wagner, Q. Weitzel, V. Zabalza, F. Zandanel, R. Zanin, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, A. Bouvier, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, M. P. Connolly, W. Cui, R. Dickherber, C. Duke, M. Errando, A. Falcone, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, S. Godambe, S. Griffin, J. Grube, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, H. Huan, C. M. Hui, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, Y. Khassen, D. Kieda, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, P. D. Nunez, R. A. Ong, M. Orr, A. N. Otte, N. Park, J. S. Perkins, A. Pichel, Martin Pohl, H. Prokoph, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, J. Ruppel, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, G. D. Sentuerk, I. Telezhinsky, G. Tesic, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, M. Vivier, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer, U. Barres de Almeida, M. Cara, C. Casadio, C. C. Cheung, W. McConville, F. Davies, A. Doi, G. Giovannini, M. Giroletti, K. Hada, P. Hardee, D. E. Harris, W. Junor, M. Kino, N. P. Lee, C. Ly, J. Madrid, F. Massaro, C. G. Mundell, H. Nagai, E. S. Perlman, I. A. Steele, R. C. Walker, D. L. Wood

  • The giant radio galaxy M 87 with its proximity (16 Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3-6) x 10(9) M-circle dot) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of supermassive black holes. M 87 has been established as a VHE gamma-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE gamma-ray emission displays strong variability on timescales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M 87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array, VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE gamma-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times ofThe giant radio galaxy M 87 with its proximity (16 Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3-6) x 10(9) M-circle dot) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of supermassive black holes. M 87 has been established as a VHE gamma-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE gamma-ray emission displays strong variability on timescales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M 87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array, VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE gamma-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times of tau(rise)(d) = (1.69 +/- 0.30) days and tau(decay)(d) = (0.611 +/- 0.080) days, respectively. While the overall variability pattern of the 2010 flare appears somewhat different from that of previous VHE flares in 2005 and 2008, they share very similar timescales (similar to day), peak fluxes (Phi(>0.35 TeV) similar or equal to (1-3) x 10(-11) photons cm(-2) s(-1)), and VHE spectra. VLBA radio observations of 43 GHz of the inner jet regions indicate no enhanced flux in 2010 in contrast to observations in 2008, where an increase of the radio flux of the innermost core regions coincided with a VHE flare. On the other hand, Chandra X-ray observations taken similar to 3 days after the peak of the VHE gamma-ray emission reveal an enhanced flux from the core (flux increased by factor similar to 2; variability timescale <2 days). The long-term (2001-2010) multi-wavelength (MWL) light curve of M 87, spanning from radio to VHE and including data from Hubble Space Telescope, Liverpool Telescope, Very Large Array, and European VLBI Network, is used to further investigate the origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission. No unique, common MWL signature of the three VHE flares has been identified. In the outer kiloparsec jet region, in particular in HST-1, no enhanced MWL activity was detected in 2008 and 2010, disfavoring it as the origin of the VHE flares during these years. Shortly after two of the three flares (2008 and 2010), the X-ray core was observed to be at a higher flux level than its characteristic range (determined from more than 60 monitoring observations: 2002-2009). In 2005, the strong flux dominance of HST-1 could have suppressed the detection of such a feature. Published models for VHE gamma-ray emission from M 87 are reviewed in the light of the new data.show moreshow less

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Author:Attila Abramowski, F. Acero, Felix Aharonian, A. G. Akhperjanian, Gisela Anton, A. Balzer, A. Barnacka, U. Barres de Almeida, Y. Becherini, J. Becker, B. Behera, K. Bernloehr, E. Birsin, J. Biteau, A. Bochow, C. Boisson, J. Bolmont, P. Bordas, J. Brucker, F. Brun, P. Brun, T. Bulik, I. Buesching, S. Carrigan, S. Casanova, M. Cerruti, P. M. Chadwick, A. Charbonnier, R. C. G. Chaves, A. Cheesebrough, A. C. Clapson, G. Coignet, G. Cologna, J. Conrad, M. Dalton, M. K. Daniel, I. D. Davids, B. Degrange, C. Deil, H. J. Dickinson, A. Djannati-Ataï, W. Domainko, L. O'C. Drury, G. Dubus, K. Dutson, J. Dyks, M. Dyrda, K. Egberts, P. Eger, P. Espigat, L. Fallon, C. Farnier, S. Fegan, F. Feinstein, M. V. Fernandes, A. Fiasson, G. Fontaine, A. Foerster, M. Fuessling, Y. A. Gallant, H. Gast, L. Gerard, D. Gerbig, B. Giebels, J. F. Glicenstein, B. Glueck, P. Goret, D. Goering, S. Haeffner, J. D. Hague, D. Hampf, M. Hauser, S. Heinz, G. Heinzelmann, G. Henri, G. Hermann, J. A. Hinton, A. Hoffmann, W. Hofmann, P. Hofverberg, M. Holler, D. Horns, A. Jacholkowska, O. C. de Jager, C. Jahn, M. Jamrozy, I. Jung, M. A. Kastendieck, K. Katarzynski, U. Katz, S. Kaufmann, D. Keogh, D. Khangulyan, B. Khelifi, D. Klochkov, W. Kluzniak, T. Kneiske, Nu. Komin, K. Kosack, R. Kossakowski, H. Laffon, G. Lamanna, D. Lennarz, T. Lohse, A. Lopatin, C. -C. Lu, V. Marandon, A. Marcowith, J. Masbou, D. Maurin, N. Maxted, M. Mayer, T. J. L. McComb, M. C. Medina, J. Mehault, R. Moderski, E. Moulin, C. L. Naumann, M. Naumann-Godo, M. de Naurois, D. Nedbal, D. Nekrassov, N. Nguyen, B. Nicholas, J. Niemiec, S. J. Nolan, S. Ohm, E. de Ona Wilhelmi, B. Opitz, M. Ostrowski, I. Oya, M. Panter, M. Paz Arribas, G. Pedaletti, G. Pelletier, P. -O. Petrucci, S. Pita, G. Puehlhofer, M. Punch, A. Quirrenbach, M. Raue, S. M. Rayner, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, M. Renaud, R. de los Reyes, F. Rieger, J. Ripken, L. Rob, S. Rosier-Lees, G. Rowell, B. Rudak, C. B. Rulten, J. Ruppel, V. Sahakian, D. A. Sanchez, A. Santangelo, R. Schlickeiser, F. M. Schoeck, A. Schulz, U. Schwanke, S. Schwarzburg, S. Schwemmer, F. Sheidaei, J. L. Skilton, H. Sol, G. Spengler, L. Stawarz, R. Steenkamp, C. Stegmann, F. Stinzing, K. Stycz, I. Sushch, A. Szostek, J. -P. Tavernet, R. Terrier, M. Tluczykont, K. Valerius, C. van Eldik, G. Vasileiadis, C. Venter, J. P. Vialle, A. Viana, P. Vincent, H. J. Voelk, F. Volpe, S. Vorobiov, M. Vorster, S. J. Wagner, M. Ward, R. White, A. Wierzcholska, M. Zacharias, A. Zajczyk, A. A. Zdziarski, A. Zech, H. -S. Zechlin, J. Aleksic, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, M. Backes, J. A. Barrio, D. Bastieri, J. Becerra Gonzalez, W. Bednarek, A. Berdyugin, K. Berger, E. Bernardini, A. Biland, O. Blanch, R. K. Bock, A. Boller, G. Bonnoli, D. Borla Tridon, I. Braun, T. Bretz, A. Canellas, E. Carmona, A. Carosi, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, L. Cossio, S. Covino, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, E. De Cea del Pozo, B. De Lotto, C. Delgado Mendez, A. Diago Ortega, M. Doert, A. Dominguez, Dijana Dominis PresterORCiD, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, D. Ferenc, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, C. Fruck, R. J. Garcia Lopez, M. Garczarczyk, D. Garrido, G. Giavitto, N. Godinovic, D. Hadasch, D. Haefner, A. Herrero, D. Hildebrand, D. Hoehne-Moench, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, B. Huber, T. Jogler, S. Klepser, T. Kraehenbuehl, J. Krause, A. La Barbera, D. Lelas, E. Leonardo, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, M. Lopez, E. Lorenz, M. Makariev, G. Maneva, N. Mankuzhiyil, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, M. Mariotti, M. Martinez, D. Mazin, M. Meucci, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, H. Miyamoto, J. Moldon, A. Moralejo, P. Munar, D. Nieto, K. Nilsson, R. Orito, I. Oya, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, S. Pardo, J. M. Paredes, S. Partini, M. Pasanen, F. Pauss, M. A. Perez-Torres, M. Persic, L. Peruzzo, M. Pilia, J. Pochon, F. Prada, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, I. Puljak, I. Reichardt, R. Reinthal, W. Rhode, M. Ribo, J. Rico, S. Ruegamer, A. Saggion, K. Saito, T. Y. Saito, M. Salvati, K. Satalecka, V. Scalzotto, V. Scapin, C. Schultz, T. Schweizer, M. Shayduk, S. N. Shore, A. Sillanpaa, J. Sitarek, D. Sobczynska, F. Spanier, S. Spiro, A. Stamerra, B. Steinke, J. Storz, N. Strah, T. Suric, L. Takalo, H. Takami, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzic, D. Tescaro, M. Teshima, M. Thom, O. Tibolla, D. F. Torres, A. Treves, H. Vankov, P. Vogler, R. M. Wagner, Q. Weitzel, V. Zabalza, F. Zandanel, R. Zanin, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, A. Bouvier, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, M. P. Connolly, W. Cui, R. Dickherber, C. Duke, M. Errando, A. Falcone, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, S. Godambe, S. Griffin, J. Grube, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, H. Huan, C. M. Hui, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, Y. Khassen, D. Kieda, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, P. D. Nunez, R. A. Ong, M. Orr, A. N. Otte, N. Park, J. S. Perkins, A. Pichel, Martin PohlORCiDGND, H. Prokoph, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, J. Ruppel, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, G. D. Sentuerk, I. Telezhinsky, G. Tesic, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, M. Vivier, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer, U. Barres de Almeida, M. Cara, C. Casadio, C. C. Cheung, W. McConville, F. Davies, A. Doi, G. Giovannini, M. Giroletti, K. Hada, P. Hardee, D. E. Harris, W. Junor, M. Kino, N. P. Lee, C. Ly, J. Madrid, F. Massaro, C. G. Mundell, H. Nagai, E. S. Perlman, I. A. Steele, R. C. Walker, D. L. Wood
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/151
ISSN:0004-637X (print)
Parent Title (English):The astrophysical journal : an international review of spectroscopy and astronomical physics
Publisher:IOP Publ. Ltd.
Place of publication:Bristol
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2012
Year of Completion:2012
Creating Corporation:HESS Collaboration, MAGIC Collaboration, VERITAS Collaboration
Release Date:2017/03/26
Tag:galaxies: active; galaxies: individual (M 87); galaxies: jets; galaxies: nuclei; gamma rays: galaxies; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal
Volume:746
Issue:2
Pagenumber:18
Funder:Namibian authorities; German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF); Max Planck Society; French Ministry for Research; CNRS-IN2P3; CNRS; U.K. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC); IPNP of the Charles University; Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education; South African Department of Science and Technology; National Research Foundation; University of Namibia; German BMBF; German MPG; Italian INFN; Swiss National Fund SNF; Spanish MICINN; Bulgarian NSF [CSD2007-00042, CSD2009-00064, DO02-353]; Academy of Finland [127740]; YIP of the Helmholtz Gemeinschaft; DFG Cluster of Excellence "Origin and Structure of the Universe,"; DFG Collaborative Research Centers [SFB823/C4, SFB876/C3]; Polish MNiSzW [745/N-HESS-MAGIC/2010/0]; US Department of Energy Office of Science; US National Science Foundation; Smithsonian Institution; NSERC in Canada; Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) [10/RFP/AST2748]; STFC in the UK; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales in France; NASA [GO0-11120X]; Associated Universities, Inc.; European Community [227290]
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Physik und Astronomie
Peer Review:Referiert