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The Kenya rift revisited

  • We present three-dimensional (3-D) models that describe the present-day thermal and rheological state of the lithosphere of the greater Kenya rift region aiming at a better understanding of the rift evolution, with a particular focus on plume-lithosphere interactions. The key methodology applied is the 3-D integration of diverse geological and geophysical observations using gravity modelling. Accordingly, the resulting lithospheric-scale 3-D density model is consistent with (i) reviewed descriptions of lithological variations in the sedimentary and volcanic cover, (ii) known trends in crust and mantle seismic velocities as revealed by seismic and seismological data and (iii) the observed gravity field. This data-based model is the first to image a 3-D density configuration of the crystalline crust for the entire region of Kenya and northern Tanzania. An upper and a basal crustal layer are differentiated, each composed of several domains of different average densities. We interpret these domains to trace back to the Precambrian terraneWe present three-dimensional (3-D) models that describe the present-day thermal and rheological state of the lithosphere of the greater Kenya rift region aiming at a better understanding of the rift evolution, with a particular focus on plume-lithosphere interactions. The key methodology applied is the 3-D integration of diverse geological and geophysical observations using gravity modelling. Accordingly, the resulting lithospheric-scale 3-D density model is consistent with (i) reviewed descriptions of lithological variations in the sedimentary and volcanic cover, (ii) known trends in crust and mantle seismic velocities as revealed by seismic and seismological data and (iii) the observed gravity field. This data-based model is the first to image a 3-D density configuration of the crystalline crust for the entire region of Kenya and northern Tanzania. An upper and a basal crustal layer are differentiated, each composed of several domains of different average densities. We interpret these domains to trace back to the Precambrian terrane amalgamation associated with the East African Orogeny and to magmatic processes during Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting phases. In combination with seismic velocities, the densities of these crustal domains indicate compositional differences. The derived lithological trends have been used to parameterise steady-state thermal and rheological models. These models indicate that crustal and mantle temperatures decrease from the Kenya rift in the west to eastern Kenya, while the integrated strength of the lithosphere increases. Thereby, the detailed strength configuration appears strongly controlled by the complex inherited crustal structure, which may have been decisive for the onset, localisation and propagation of rifting.show moreshow less

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Author:Judith SippelORCiDGND, Christian MeeßenORCiD, Mauro Cacace, James Mechie, Stewart Fishwick, Christian Heine, Magdalena Scheck-WenderothORCiDGND, Manfred R. StreckerORCiDGND
URN:urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus4-418221
DOI:https://doi.org/10.25932/publishup-41822
ISSN:1866-8372
Parent Title (English):Postprints der Universität Potsdam : Mathematisch Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe
Subtitle (English):insights into lithospheric strength through data-driven 3-D gravity and thermal modelling
Series (Serial Number):Postprints der Universität Potsdam : Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe (644)
Document Type:Postprint
Language:English
Date of first Publication:2019/02/21
Year of Completion:2017
Publishing Institution:Universität Potsdam
Release Date:2019/02/22
Tag:Mozambique belt; Northern Kenya; cenozoic Turkana depression; continental lithosphere; crustal structure; east-african rift; seismic velocity structure; structure beneath; upper-mantle; wave tomography
Issue:644
Page Number:37
First Page:45
Last Page:81
Source:Solid Earth 8 (2017) pp. 45–81 DOI 10.5194/se-8-45-2017
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 55 Geowissenschaften, Geologie / 550 Geowissenschaften
Peer Review:Referiert
Publication Way:Open Access
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung, 4.0 International