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Quantifying canyon incision and Andean Plateau surface uplift, southwest Peru : a thermochronometer and numerical modeling approach

  • Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from Ocona canyon at the western margin of the Central Andean plateau record rock cooling histories induced by a major phase of canyon incision. We quantify the timing and magnitude of incision by integrating previously published ages from the valley bottom with 19 new sample ages from four valley wall transects. Interpretation of the incision history from cooling ages is complicated by a southwest to northeast increase in temperatures at the base of the crust due to subduction and volcanism. Furthermore, the large magnitude of incision leads to additional three-dimensional variations in the thermal field. We address these complications with finite element thermal and thermochronometer age prediction models to quantify the range of topographic evolution scenarios consistent with observed cooling ages. Comparison of 275 model simulations to observed cooling ages and regional heat flow determinations identify a best fit history with <= 0.2 km of incision in the forearc region prior to similar to 14 MaApatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from Ocona canyon at the western margin of the Central Andean plateau record rock cooling histories induced by a major phase of canyon incision. We quantify the timing and magnitude of incision by integrating previously published ages from the valley bottom with 19 new sample ages from four valley wall transects. Interpretation of the incision history from cooling ages is complicated by a southwest to northeast increase in temperatures at the base of the crust due to subduction and volcanism. Furthermore, the large magnitude of incision leads to additional three-dimensional variations in the thermal field. We address these complications with finite element thermal and thermochronometer age prediction models to quantify the range of topographic evolution scenarios consistent with observed cooling ages. Comparison of 275 model simulations to observed cooling ages and regional heat flow determinations identify a best fit history with <= 0.2 km of incision in the forearc region prior to similar to 14 Ma and up to 3.0 km of incision starting between 7 and 11 Ma. Incision starting at 7 Ma requires incision to end by similar to 5.5 to 6 Ma. However, a 2.2 Ma age on a volcanic flow on the current valley floor and 5 Ma gravels on the uplifted piedmont surface together suggest that incision ended during the time span between 2.2 and 5 Ma. These additional constraints for incision end time lead to a range of best fit incision onset times between 8 and 11 Ma, which must coincide with or postdate surface uplift.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Taylor F. Schildgen, Todd A. Ehlers, David M. Whipp, Matthijs C. van Soest, Kelin X. Whipple, Kip V. Hodges
URL:http://www.agu.org/journals/jf/
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jf001305
ISSN:0148-0227
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2009
Year of Completion:2009
Release Date:2017/03/25
Source:Journal of geophysical research : earth surface. - ISSN 0148-0227. - 114 (2009), Art. F04014
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften
Peer Review:Referiert