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Static and dynamic foot characteristics in children aged 1-13 years a cross-sectional study

  • The aim of this study was to acquire static and dynamic foot geometry and loading in childhood, and to establish data for age groups of a population of 1-13 year old infants and children. A total of 10,382 children were recruited and 7788 children (48% males and 52% females) were finally included into the data analysis. For static foot geometry foot length and foot width were quantified in a standing position. Dynamic foot geometry and loading were assessed during walking on a walkway with self selected speed (Novel Emed X, 100 Hz, 4 sensors/cm(2)). Contact area (CA), peak pressure (PP), force time integral (FTI) and the arch index were calculated for the total, fore-, mid- and hindfoot. Results show that most static and dynamic foot characteristics change continuously during growth and maturation. Static foot length and width increased with age from 13.1 +/- 0.8 cm (length) and 5.7 +/- 0.4 cm (width) in the youngest to 24.4 +/- 1.5 cm (length) and 8.9 +/- 0.6 cm (width) in the oldest. A mean walking velocity of 0.94 +/- 0.25 m/sThe aim of this study was to acquire static and dynamic foot geometry and loading in childhood, and to establish data for age groups of a population of 1-13 year old infants and children. A total of 10,382 children were recruited and 7788 children (48% males and 52% females) were finally included into the data analysis. For static foot geometry foot length and foot width were quantified in a standing position. Dynamic foot geometry and loading were assessed during walking on a walkway with self selected speed (Novel Emed X, 100 Hz, 4 sensors/cm(2)). Contact area (CA), peak pressure (PP), force time integral (FTI) and the arch index were calculated for the total, fore-, mid- and hindfoot. Results show that most static and dynamic foot characteristics change continuously during growth and maturation. Static foot length and width increased with age from 13.1 +/- 0.8 cm (length) and 5.7 +/- 0.4 cm (width) in the youngest to 24.4 +/- 1.5 cm (length) and 8.9 +/- 0.6 cm (width) in the oldest. A mean walking velocity of 0.94 +/- 0.25 m/s was observed. Arch-index ranged from 0.32 +/- 0.04 [a.u.] in the one-year old to 0.21 +/- 0.13 [a.u.] in the 5-year olds and remains constant afterwards. This study provides data for static and dynamic foot characteristics in children based on a cohort of 7788 subjects. Static and dynamic foot measures change differently during growth and maturation. Dynamic foot measurements provide additional information about the children's foot compared to static measures.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Steffen MüllerGND, Anja CarlsohnORCiDGND, Juliane MüllerORCiDGND, Heiner BaurORCiDGND, Frank MayerORCiDGND
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.10.357
ISSN:0966-6362 (print)
Parent Title (English):Gait & posture
Publisher:Elsevier
Place of publication:Clare
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2012
Year of Completion:2012
Release Date:2017/03/26
Tag:Arch-index; Children; Foot; Geometry; Plantar pressure
Volume:35
Issue:3
Pagenumber:6
First Page:389
Last Page:394
Funder:Federation of the German Footwear Industry (HDS, Offenbach, Germany); RICOSTA Schuhfabriken GmbH (Donaueschingen, Germany); University of Potsdam (Potsdam, Germany)
Organizational units:Humanwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Sportwissenschaft
Peer Review:Referiert