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Interactions between ionic liquids and radicals

  • Ionic liquids were investigated with both stable radicals on the basis of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-yloxyl (TEMPO) and photogenerated lophyl radicals. The ionic liquids are composed either of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2) as anion and various cations or they contain an imidazolium ion in combination with various anions. The cations include imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, polymethine or ammonium ions. Furthermore, BF4-, PF6-, triflate, camphorsulfonate, lactate, tosylate or tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate (FAP) are the counter ions in the imidazolium salts. The structural variation of the ionic liquids results in differences in glass formation, semiaystallinity, or crystallinity, as well as in viscosity differences. Furthermore, a vinyl substituent at the imidazolium ion and a methacryloyloxyethyl substituent at the ammonium ion result in polymerizable ionic liquids that were converted via a radical mechanism in amorphous polymerized ionic liquids with a glass transition temperature, which isIonic liquids were investigated with both stable radicals on the basis of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-yloxyl (TEMPO) and photogenerated lophyl radicals. The ionic liquids are composed either of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2) as anion and various cations or they contain an imidazolium ion in combination with various anions. The cations include imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, polymethine or ammonium ions. Furthermore, BF4-, PF6-, triflate, camphorsulfonate, lactate, tosylate or tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate (FAP) are the counter ions in the imidazolium salts. The structural variation of the ionic liquids results in differences in glass formation, semiaystallinity, or crystallinity, as well as in viscosity differences. Furthermore, a vinyl substituent at the imidazolium ion and a methacryloyloxyethyl substituent at the ammonium ion result in polymerizable ionic liquids that were converted via a radical mechanism in amorphous polymerized ionic liquids with a glass transition temperature, which is significantly higher compared to the ionic liquids. An additional substituent at TEMPO causes additional hydrogen bond formation or additional Coulomb interactions with the individual ions of the ionic liquids compared to TEMPO. This influences the mobility of these radicals in the ionic liquid expressed by differences in the average rotational correlation time (T-rot). The mobility of the radicals in the ionic liquids as function of the temperature describes ionic liquids either as continuum in analogy to molecular solvents using the Stokes-Einstein model, that is the case for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium NTf2, or as medium where free volume effects are important for the mobility of a solute in the ionic liquid using the model of Spernol, Gierer, and Wirtz. The 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium BF4- fits well into the latter. Furthermore, the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant (A(iso)(N-14)) of the stable radicals gives information about micropolarity of the ionic liquids only if the mobility of the radical is high enough in the ionic liquid. In addition to the rotational mobility of the stable radicals, the photogenerated lophyl radicals give information about translational diffusion of radicals and solvent cage effects in the ionic liquids. The application of the Eyring equation results mostly in the expected negative values of the activation entropy for the transition state that is typical for bimolecular reactions. Only few examples show a less negative or positive activation entropy for the bimolecular reaction, which may be attributed to radical recombination within the solvent cage to a high extent. The results obtained during investigation of radicals in ionic liquids are important to understand the radical processes in ionic liquids that may occur for example in dye sensitized solar cells, photo or thermally induced reactions or radical polymerizations in ionic liquids.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Veronika StrehmelORCiDGND, Stefan Berdzinski, Hans Rexhausen
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2013.12.007
ISSN:0167-7322 (print)
ISSN:1873-3166 (online)
Parent Title (English):Journal of molecular liquids
Publisher:Elsevier
Place of publication:Amsterdam
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2014
Year of Completion:2014
Release Date:2017/03/27
Tag:Ionic liquids; Micropolarity; Microviscosity; Polymerized ionic liquids; Radicals; Spin probes
Volume:192
Pagenumber:18
First Page:153
Last Page:170
Funder:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the priority program Ionic Liquids [SPP 1191]
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Chemie
Peer Review:Referiert