## Trapped surfaces and emergent curved space in the Bose-Hubbard model

- A Bose-Hubbard model on a dynamical lattice was introduced in previous work as a spin system analogue of emergent geometry and gravity. Graphs with regions of high connectivity in the lattice were identified as candidate analogues of spacetime geometries that contain trapped surfaces. We carry out a detailed study of these systems and show explicitly that the highly connected subgraphs trap matter. We do this by solving the model in the limit of no back-reaction of the matter on the lattice, and for states with certain symmetries that are natural for our problem. We find that in this case the problem reduces to a one-dimensional Hubbard model on a lattice with variable vertex degree and multiple edges between the same two vertices. In addition, we obtain a (discrete) differential equation for the evolution of the probability density of particles which is closed in the classical regime. This is a wave equation in which the vertex degree is related to the local speed of propagation of probability. This allows an interpretation of theA Bose-Hubbard model on a dynamical lattice was introduced in previous work as a spin system analogue of emergent geometry and gravity. Graphs with regions of high connectivity in the lattice were identified as candidate analogues of spacetime geometries that contain trapped surfaces. We carry out a detailed study of these systems and show explicitly that the highly connected subgraphs trap matter. We do this by solving the model in the limit of no back-reaction of the matter on the lattice, and for states with certain symmetries that are natural for our problem. We find that in this case the problem reduces to a one-dimensional Hubbard model on a lattice with variable vertex degree and multiple edges between the same two vertices. In addition, we obtain a (discrete) differential equation for the evolution of the probability density of particles which is closed in the classical regime. This is a wave equation in which the vertex degree is related to the local speed of propagation of probability. This allows an interpretation of the probability density of particles similar to that in analogue gravity systems: matter inside this analogue system sees a curved spacetime. We verify our analytic results by numerical simulations. Finally, we analyze the dependence of localization on a gradual, rather than abrupt, falloff of the vertex degree on the boundary of the highly connected region and find that matter is localized in and around that region.…

Author: | Francesco Caravelli, Alioscia Hamma, Fotini Markopoulou, Arnau Riera |
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DOI: | https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.85.044046 |

ISSN: | 1550-7998 (print) |

Parent Title (English): | Physical review : D, Particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology |

Publisher: | American Physical Society |

Place of publication: | College Park |

Document Type: | Article |

Language: | English |

Year of first Publication: | 2012 |

Year of Completion: | 2012 |

Release Date: | 2017/03/26 |

Volume: | 85 |

Issue: | 4 |

Pagenumber: | 15 |

Funder: | Government of Canada through Industry Canada; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research Innovation |

Organizational units: | Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Physik und Astronomie |

Peer Review: | Referiert |