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Dynamics of the geomagnetic field during the last glacial

Dynamik des geomagnetischen Feldes während der letzten Eiszeit

  • Geomagnetic paleosecular variations (PSVs) are an expression of geodynamo processes inside the Earth’s liquid outer core. These paleomagnetic time series provide insights into the properties of the Earth’s magnetic field, from normal behavior with a dominating dipolar geometry, over field crises, such as pronounced intensity lows and geomagnetic excursions with a distorted field geometry, to the complete reversal of the dominating dipole contribution. Particularly, long-term high-resolution and high-quality PSV time series are needed for properly reconstructing the higher frequency components in the spectrum of geomagnetic field variations and for a better understanding of the effects of smoothing during the recording of such paleomagnetic records by sedimentary archives. In this doctorate study, full vector paleomagnetic records were derived from 16 sediment cores recovered from the southeastern Black Sea. Age models are based on radiocarbon dating and correlations of warming/cooling cycles monitored by high-resolution X-rayGeomagnetic paleosecular variations (PSVs) are an expression of geodynamo processes inside the Earth’s liquid outer core. These paleomagnetic time series provide insights into the properties of the Earth’s magnetic field, from normal behavior with a dominating dipolar geometry, over field crises, such as pronounced intensity lows and geomagnetic excursions with a distorted field geometry, to the complete reversal of the dominating dipole contribution. Particularly, long-term high-resolution and high-quality PSV time series are needed for properly reconstructing the higher frequency components in the spectrum of geomagnetic field variations and for a better understanding of the effects of smoothing during the recording of such paleomagnetic records by sedimentary archives. In this doctorate study, full vector paleomagnetic records were derived from 16 sediment cores recovered from the southeastern Black Sea. Age models are based on radiocarbon dating and correlations of warming/cooling cycles monitored by high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elementary ratios as well as ice-rafted debris (IRD) in Black Sea sediments to the sequence of ‘Dansgaard-Oeschger’ (DO) events defined from Greenland ice core oxygen isotope stratigraphy. In order to identify the carriers of magnetization in Black Sea sediments, core MSM33-55-1 recovered from the southeast Black Sea was subjected to detailed rock magnetic and electron microscopy investigations. The younger part of core MSM33-55-1 was continuously deposited since 41 ka. Before 17.5 ka, the magnetic minerals were dominated by a mixture of greigite (Fe3S4) and titanomagnetite (Fe3-xTixO4) in samples with SIRM/κLF >10 kAm-1, or exclusively by titanomagnetite in samples with SIRM/κLF ≤10 kAm-1. It was found that greigite is generally present as crustal aggregates in locally reducing micro-environments. From 17.5 ka to 8.3 ka, the dominant magnetic mineral in this transition phase was changing from greigite (17.5 – ~10.0 ka) to probably silicate-hosted titanomagnetite (~10.0 – 8.3 ka). After 8.3 ka, the anoxic Black Sea was a favorable environment for the formation of non-magnetic pyrite (FeS2) framboids. Aiming to avoid compromising of paleomagnetic data by erroneous directions carried by greigite, paleomagnetic data from samples with SIRM/κLF >10 kAm-1, shown to contain greigite by various methods, were removed from obtained records. Consequently, full vector paleomagnetic records, comprising directional data and relative paleointensity (rPI), were derived only from samples with SIRM/κLF ≤10 kAm-1 from 16 Black Sea sediment cores. The obtained data sets were used to create a stack covering the time window between 68.9 and 14.5 ka with temporal resolution between 40 and 100 years, depending on sedimentation rates. At 64.5 ka, according to obtained results from Black Sea sediments, the second deepest minimum in relative paleointensity during the past 69 ka occurred. The field minimum during MIS 4 is associated with large declination swings beginning about 3 ka before the minimum. While a swing to 50°E is associated with steep inclinations (50-60°) according to the coring site at 42°N, the subsequent declination swing to 30°W is associated with shallow inclinations of down to 40°. Nevertheless, these large deviations from the direction of a geocentric axial dipole field (I=61°, D=0°) still can not yet be termed as 'excursional', since latitudes of corresponding VGPs only reach down to 51.5°N (120°E) and 61.5°N (75°W), respectively. However, these VGP positions at opposite sides of the globe are linked with VGP drift rates of up to 0.2° per year in between. These extreme secular variations might be the mid-latitude expression of the Norwegian–Greenland Sea excursion found at several sites much further North in Arctic marine sediments between 69°N and 81°N. At about 34.5 ka, the Mono Lake excursion is evidenced in the stacked Black Sea PSV record by both a rPI minimum and directional shifts. Associated VGPs from stacked Black Sea data migrated from Alaska, via central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau, to Greenland, performing a clockwise loop. This agrees with data recorded in the Wilson Creek Formation, USA., and Arctic sediment core PS2644-5 from the Iceland Sea, suggesting a dominant dipole field. On the other hand, the Auckland lava flows, New Zealand, the Summer Lake, USA., and Arctic sediment core from ODP Site-919 yield distinct VGPs located in the central Pacific Ocean due to a presumably non-dipole (multi-pole) field configuration. A directional anomaly at 18.5 ka, associated with pronounced swings in inclination and declination, as well as a low in rPI, is probably contemporaneous with the Hilina Pali excursion, originally reported from Hawaiian lava flows. However, virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) calculated from Black Sea sediments are not located at latitudes lower than 60° N, which denotes normal, though pronounced secular variations. During the postulated Hilina Pali excursion, the VGPs calculated from Black Sea data migrated clockwise only along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean from NE Canada (20.0 ka), via Alaska (18.6 ka) and NE Siberia (18.0 ka) to Svalbard (17.0 ka), then looping clockwise through the Eastern Arctic Ocean. In addition to the Mono Lake and the Norwegian–Greenland Sea excursions, the Laschamp excursion was evidenced in the Black Sea PSV record with the lowest paleointensities at about 41.6 ka and a short-term (~500 years) full reversal centered at 41 ka. These excursions are further evidenced by an abnormal PSV index, though only the Laschamp and the Mono Lake excursions exhibit excursional VGP positions. The stacked Black Sea paleomagnetic record was also converted into one component parallel to the direction expected from a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) and two components perpendicular to it, representing only non-GAD components of the geomagnetic field. The Laschamp and the Norwegian–Greenland Sea excursions are characterized by extremely low GAD components, while the Mono Lake excursion is marked by large non-GAD contributions. Notably, negative values of the GAD component, indicating a fully reversed geomagnetic field, are observed only during the Laschamp excursion. In summary, this doctoral thesis reconstructed high-resolution and high-fidelity PSV records from SE Black Sea sediments. The obtained record comprises three geomagnetic excursions, the Norwegian–Greenland Sea excursion, the Laschamp excursion, and the Mono Lake excursion. They are characterized by abnormal secular variations of different amplitudes centered at about 64.5 ka, 41.0 ka and 34.5 ka, respectively. In addition, the obtained PSV record from the Black Sea do not provide evidence for the postulated 'Hilina Pali excursion' at about 18.5 ka. Anyway, the obtained Black Sea paleomagnetic record, covering field fluctuations from normal secular variations, over excursions, to a short but full reversal, points to a geomagnetic field characterized by a large dynamic range in intensity and a highly variable superposition of dipole and non-dipole contributions from the geodynamo during the past 68.9 to 14.5 ka.show moreshow less
  • Die geomagnetischen Paläosäkularvarionen sind ein Ausdruck dynamischer Konvektionsprozesse im flüssigen äußeren Erdkern als Quelle des Erdmagnetfeldes, dem Geodynamo. Paläomagnetischen Zeitserien erlauben daher Rückschlüsse auf die veränderlichen Eigenschaften des Erdmagnetfeldes in Raum und Zeit, von stabilen Zuständen mit relativ hoher Feldstärke und dominierender Dipolgeometrie, bei der die magnetischen Pole nur in hohen Breiten migireren, über Feldkrisen wie Intensitätsminima und geomagnetischen Exkursionen mit komplexeren Geomentrien, bishin zur vollständigen und dauerhaften Umpolung des Dipolhauptfeldes. Eine geomagnetische Exkursion, als Extremfall der Paläosekularvariationen, ist charakterisiert durch kurzfristige (<104 Jahre) Abweichungen der paläomagnetischen Richtungen von der Richtung, die ein geozentrischer axialer Dipol produziert. Die aus paläognetisch bestimmten Richtungen abgeleiteten Positionen des virtuellen geomagnetischen (Nord-) Pols (VGP) liegen dabei per Definition südlich von 45°N. Für diese DoktoarbeitDie geomagnetischen Paläosäkularvarionen sind ein Ausdruck dynamischer Konvektionsprozesse im flüssigen äußeren Erdkern als Quelle des Erdmagnetfeldes, dem Geodynamo. Paläomagnetischen Zeitserien erlauben daher Rückschlüsse auf die veränderlichen Eigenschaften des Erdmagnetfeldes in Raum und Zeit, von stabilen Zuständen mit relativ hoher Feldstärke und dominierender Dipolgeometrie, bei der die magnetischen Pole nur in hohen Breiten migireren, über Feldkrisen wie Intensitätsminima und geomagnetischen Exkursionen mit komplexeren Geomentrien, bishin zur vollständigen und dauerhaften Umpolung des Dipolhauptfeldes. Eine geomagnetische Exkursion, als Extremfall der Paläosekularvariationen, ist charakterisiert durch kurzfristige (<104 Jahre) Abweichungen der paläomagnetischen Richtungen von der Richtung, die ein geozentrischer axialer Dipol produziert. Die aus paläognetisch bestimmten Richtungen abgeleiteten Positionen des virtuellen geomagnetischen (Nord-) Pols (VGP) liegen dabei per Definition südlich von 45°N. Für diese Doktoarbeit wurden sechzehn Sedimentkerne aus dem Schwarzen Meer herangezogen, um das Verhalten des Erdmagnetfeldes der letzten 70 ka zu untersuchen. Die dabei rekonstruierten Feldvariationen umfassen drei geomagnetische Exkursionen: die 'Norwegian-Greenland Sea excursion' (64.5 ka), die 'Laschamps excursion' (41.0 ka), sowie die 'Mono Lake excursion' (34.5 ka). Alle drei Ereignisse sind mit ausgeprägten Minima in der Feldintensität verbunden. Insbesondere während der 'Laschamps excursion', kam es zu einer kurzfristigen (0.5 ka) aber vollständigen Umpolung, während für die 'Mono Lake excursion' nur ein stark verzerrtes Dipolfeld anzunehmen ist. Die in der Literatur postulierte 'Hilina Pali excursion' (18.5 ka) konnte trotz in diesem Zeitraum zeitlich hochaufgelöster Datenreihen aus dem Schwarzen Meer nicht verifiziert werden. Für sie konnte, ähnlich wie für die 'Norwegian Greenland Sea excursion', lediglich stärker ausgeprägte, zum Teil zeitlich beschleunigte Änderungen in Inklination und Deklination der Magnetfeldrichtung nachgewiesen werden.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Jiabo LiuORCiD
URN:urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus4-429461
DOI:https://doi.org/10.25932/publishup-42946
Advisor:Norbert Nowaczyk, Helge Wolfgang Arz
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language:English
Year of Completion:2019
Publishing Institution:Universität Potsdam
Granting Institution:Universität Potsdam
Date of final exam:2019/05/20
Release Date:2019/06/19
Tag:Paläomagnetik; Paläosekularvariation; Schwarzes Meer; geomagnetische Exkursionen
Black Sea; geomagnetic excursions; paleomagnetism; paleosecular variations
Pagenumber:xv, 158
RVK - Regensburg Classification:UT 2100
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Geowissenschaften
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 55 Geowissenschaften, Geologie / 550 Geowissenschaften
PACS Classification:90.00.00 GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS (for more detailed headings, see the Geophysics Appendix) / 91.00.00 Solid Earth physics / 91.25.-r Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; geoelectricity (see also 91.50.Iv Marine magnetics and electromagnetics) / 91.25.Ng Paleomagnetism
Licence (German):License LogoKeine Nutzungslizenz vergeben - es gilt das deutsche Urheberrecht