• search hit 1 of 1
Back to Result List

Purification and characterization of mouse aldehyde oxidases

Aufreinigung und Charakterisierung von Maus-Aldehyd-Oxidasen

  • Mouse aldehyde oxidases (mAOXs) have a homodimeric structure and belong to xanthine oxidase family of molybdo-flavoenzymes. In general, each dimer is characterized by three subdomains: a 20 kDa N-terminal 2x[2Fe2S] cluster containing domain, a 40 kDa central FAD-containing domain and an 85 kDa C-terminal molybdenum cofactor (Moco) containing domain. Aldehyde oxidases have a broad substrate specificity including the oxidation of different aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds. AOX enzymes are present in mainly all eukaryotes. Four different homologs of AOX were identified to be present with varying numbers among species and rodents like mice and rats contain the highest number of AOX isoenzymes. There are four identified homologs in mouse named mAOX1, mAOX3, mAOX2, and mAOX4. The AOX homologs in mice are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Expression of mAOX1 and mAOX3 are almost superimposable and predominantly synthesized in liver, lung, and testis. The richest source of mAOX4 is the Harderian gland, which is found within theMouse aldehyde oxidases (mAOXs) have a homodimeric structure and belong to xanthine oxidase family of molybdo-flavoenzymes. In general, each dimer is characterized by three subdomains: a 20 kDa N-terminal 2x[2Fe2S] cluster containing domain, a 40 kDa central FAD-containing domain and an 85 kDa C-terminal molybdenum cofactor (Moco) containing domain. Aldehyde oxidases have a broad substrate specificity including the oxidation of different aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds. AOX enzymes are present in mainly all eukaryotes. Four different homologs of AOX were identified to be present with varying numbers among species and rodents like mice and rats contain the highest number of AOX isoenzymes. There are four identified homologs in mouse named mAOX1, mAOX3, mAOX2, and mAOX4. The AOX homologs in mice are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Expression of mAOX1 and mAOX3 are almost superimposable and predominantly synthesized in liver, lung, and testis. The richest source of mAOX4 is the Harderian gland, which is found within the eye's orbit in tetrapods. Expression of mAOX2 is strictly restricted to the Bowman’s gland, the main secretory organ of the nasal mucosa. In this study, the four catalytically active mAOX enzymes were expressed in a heterologous expression system in Escherichia coli and purified in a catalytically active form. Thirty different structurally related aromatic, aliphatic and N-heterocyclic compounds were used as substrates, and the kinetic parameters of all four mAOX enzymes were directly compared. The results showed that all enzymes can catalyze a broad range of substrates. Generally, no major differences between mAOX1, mAOX3 and mAOX2 were identified and the substrate specificity of mAOX1, mAOX3, and mAOX2 was broader compared to that of mAOX4 since mAOX4 showed no activity with substrates like methoxy-benzaldehydes, phenanthridine, N1-methyl-nicotinamide, and cinnamaldehyde and 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde. We investigated differences at the flavin site of the mAOX enzymes by measuring the ability of the four mAOX enzymes to oxidize NADH in the absence of oxygen. NADH was able to reduce only mAOX3. The four mouse AOXs are also characterized by quantitative differences in their ability to produce superoxide radicals. mAOX2 is the enzyme generating the largest rate of superoxide radicals of around 40% in relation to moles of substrate converted and it is followed by mAOX1 with a ratio of 30%. To understand the factors that contribute to the substrate specificity of mAOX4, site-directed mutagenesis was applied to substitute amino acids in the substrate-binding funnel by the ones present in mAOX1, mAOX3, and mAOX2. The amino acids Val1016, Ile1018 and Met1088 were selected as targets. An increase in activity was obtained by the amino acid exchange M1088V in the active site identified to be specific for mAOX4, to the amino acid identified in mAOX3.show moreshow less
  • Mouse aldehyde oxidases (mAOXs) have a homodimeric structure and belong to xanthine oxidase family of molybdo-flavoenzymes. In general, each dimer is characterized by three subdomains: a 20 kDa N-terminal 2x[2Fe2S] cluster containing domain, a 40 kDa central FAD-containing domain and an 85 kDa C-terminal molybdenum cofactor (Moco) containing domain. Aldehyde oxidases have a broad substrate specificity including the oxidation of different aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds. AOX enzymes are present in mainly all eukaryotes. Four different homologs of AOX were identified to be present with varying numbers among species and rodents like mice and rats contain the highest number of AOX isoenzymes. There are four identified homologs in mouse named mAOX1, mAOX3, mAOX2, and mAOX4. The AOX homologs in mice are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Expression of mAOX1 and mAOX3 are almost superimposable and predominantly synthesized in liver, lung, and testis. The richest source of mAOX4 is the Harderian gland, which is found within theMouse aldehyde oxidases (mAOXs) have a homodimeric structure and belong to xanthine oxidase family of molybdo-flavoenzymes. In general, each dimer is characterized by three subdomains: a 20 kDa N-terminal 2x[2Fe2S] cluster containing domain, a 40 kDa central FAD-containing domain and an 85 kDa C-terminal molybdenum cofactor (Moco) containing domain. Aldehyde oxidases have a broad substrate specificity including the oxidation of different aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds. AOX enzymes are present in mainly all eukaryotes. Four different homologs of AOX were identified to be present with varying numbers among species and rodents like mice and rats contain the highest number of AOX isoenzymes. There are four identified homologs in mouse named mAOX1, mAOX3, mAOX2, and mAOX4. The AOX homologs in mice are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Expression of mAOX1 and mAOX3 are almost superimposable and predominantly synthesized in liver, lung, and testis. The richest source of mAOX4 is the Harderian gland, which is found within the eye's orbit in tetrapods. Expression of mAOX2 is strictly restricted to the Bowman’s gland, the main secretory organ of the nasal mucosa. In this study, the four catalytically active mAOX enzymes were expressed in a heterologous expression system in Escherichia coli and purified in a catalytically active form. Thirty different structurally related aromatic, aliphatic and N-heterocyclic compounds were used as substrates, and the kinetic parameters of all four mAOX enzymes were directly compared. The results showed that all enzymes can catalyze a broad range of substrates. Generally, no major differences between mAOX1, mAOX3 and mAOX2 were identified and the substrate specificity of mAOX1, mAOX3, and mAOX2 was broader compared to that of mAOX4 since mAOX4 showed no activity with substrates like methoxy-benzaldehydes, phenanthridine, N1-methyl-nicotinamide, and cinnamaldehyde and 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde. We investigated differences at the flavin site of the mAOX enzymes by measuring the ability of the four mAOX enzymes to oxidize NADH in the absence of oxygen. NADH was able to reduce only mAOX3. The four mouse AOXs are also characterized by quantitative differences in their ability to produce superoxide radicals. mAOX2 is the enzyme generating the largest rate of superoxide radicals of around 40% in relation to moles of substrate converted and it is followed by mAOX1 with a ratio of 30%. To understand the factors that contribute to the substrate specificity of mAOX4, site-directed mutagenesis was applied to substitute amino acids in the substrate-binding funnel by the ones present in mAOX1, mAOX3, and mAOX2. The amino acids Val1016, Ile1018 and Met1088 were selected as targets. An increase in activity was obtained by the amino acid exchange M1088V in the active site identified to be specific for mAOX4, to the amino acid identified in mAOX3.show moreshow less

Export metadata

Additional Services

Share in Twitter Search Google Scholar Statistics
Metadaten
Author:Gökhan Küçükgöze
Referee:Petra WendlerGND, Maria João Romão
Advisor:Silke Leimkühler
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language:English
Year of Completion:2019
Publishing Institution:Universität Potsdam
Granting Institution:Universität Potsdam
Date of final exam:2019/01/17
Release Date:2019/01/18
Tag:Aldehyd-oxidase; Enzymkinetik; Isoenzyme; Metabolismus von Medikamenten; Molybdänkofaktor
aldehyde oxidase; drug metabolism; enzyme isoforms; enzyme kinetics; molybdenum cofactor
Pagenumber:xiv, 125
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Biochemie und Biologie
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Licence (German):License LogoKeine Nutzungslizenz vergeben - es gilt das deutsche Urheberrecht