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Investigation of the Catalytic Activity of a 2-Phenylidenepyridine Palladium(II) Complex Bearing 4,5-Dicyano-1,3-bis(mesityl)imidazol-2-ylidene in the Mizoroki-Heck Reaction

  • The phenylidenepyridine (ppy) palladacycles [PdCl(ppy)(IMes)] (4) [IMes = 1,3-bis(mesityl) imidazol-2-ylidene] and [PdCl(ppy){(CN)(2)IMes}] (6) [(CN)(2)IMes = 4,5-dicyano-1,3-bis(mesityl) imidazol-2-ylidene] were prepared by facile two step syntheses, starting with the reaction of palladium(II) chloride with 2-phenylpyridine followed by subsequent addition of the NHC ligand to the precatalyst precursor [PdCl(ppy)](2). Suitable crystals for the X-ray analysis of the complexes 4 and 6 were obtained. It was shown that 6 has a shorter NHC-palladium bond than the IMes complex 4. The difference of the palladium carbene bond lengths based on the higher pi-acceptor strength of (CN)(2)IMes in comparison to IMes. Thus, (CN)(2)IMes should stabilize the catalytically active central palladium atom better than IMes. As a measure for the pi-acceptor strength of (CN)(2)IMes compared to IMes, the selone (CN)(2)IMes center dot Se (7) was prepared and characterized by Se-77-NMR spectroscopy. The pi-acceptor strength of 7 was illuminated by the shift ofThe phenylidenepyridine (ppy) palladacycles [PdCl(ppy)(IMes)] (4) [IMes = 1,3-bis(mesityl) imidazol-2-ylidene] and [PdCl(ppy){(CN)(2)IMes}] (6) [(CN)(2)IMes = 4,5-dicyano-1,3-bis(mesityl) imidazol-2-ylidene] were prepared by facile two step syntheses, starting with the reaction of palladium(II) chloride with 2-phenylpyridine followed by subsequent addition of the NHC ligand to the precatalyst precursor [PdCl(ppy)](2). Suitable crystals for the X-ray analysis of the complexes 4 and 6 were obtained. It was shown that 6 has a shorter NHC-palladium bond than the IMes complex 4. The difference of the palladium carbene bond lengths based on the higher pi-acceptor strength of (CN)(2)IMes in comparison to IMes. Thus, (CN)(2)IMes should stabilize the catalytically active central palladium atom better than IMes. As a measure for the pi-acceptor strength of (CN)(2)IMes compared to IMes, the selone (CN)(2)IMes center dot Se (7) was prepared and characterized by Se-77-NMR spectroscopy. The pi-acceptor strength of 7 was illuminated by the shift of its Se-77-NMR signal. The Se-77-NMR signal of 7 was shifted to much higher frequencies than the Se-77-NMR signal of IMes center dot Se. Catalytic experiments using the Mizoroki-Heck reaction of aryl chlorides with n-butyl acrylate showed that 6 is the superior performer in comparison to 4. Using complex 6, an extensive substrate screening of 26 different aryl bromides with n-butyl acrylate was performed. Complex 6 is a suitable precatalyst for para-substituted aryl bromides. The catalytically active species was identified by mercury poisoning experiments to be palladium nanoparticles.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Heiko Baier, Alexandra Kelling, Uwe Schilde, Hans-Jürgen Holdt
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/zaac.201500625
ISSN:0044-2313
ISSN:1521-3749
Parent Title (English):Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie
Publisher:Wiley-VCH
Place of publication:Weinheim
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2016
Year of Completion:2016
Release Date:2020/03/22
Tag:C-C coupling; Carbene ligands; Heck reaction; Palladium; Selenium
Volume:642
Pagenumber:8
First Page:140
Last Page:147
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Chemie
Peer Review:Referiert