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Efficient palladium(II) precatalysts bearing 4,5-dicyanoimidazol-2-ylidene for the Mizoroki-Heck reaction

  • The new N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex [PdCl2{(CN)(2)IMes}(PPh3)] (2) ({(CN)(2)IMes}: 4,5-dicyano-1,3-dimesitylimidazol-2-ylidene) and the NHC palladacycle [PdCl(dmba){(CN)(2)IMes}] (3) (dmba: N,N-dimethylbenzylamine) have been synthesized by thermolysis of 4,5-dicyano-1,3-dimesityl-2-(pentafluorophenyl) imidazoline (1) in the presence of suitable palladium(II) precursors. The acyclic complex 2 was formed by ligand exchange using the mononuclear precursor [PdCl2(PPh3)(2)] and the palladacycle 3 was formed by cleavage of the dinuclear chloro-bridged precursor [Pd(mu-Cl)(dmba)](2). The new NHC precursor 1-benzyl-4,5-dicyano-2-(pentafluorophenyl)-3-picolylimidazoline (5) was formed by condensation of pentafluorobenzaldehyde with N-benzyl-N'-picolyldiaminomaleonitrile (4). The NHC palladacycle [PdCl2{(CN)(2)IBzPic}] (6) ({(CN)(2)IBzPic}: 1-benzyl-4,5-dicyano-3-picolylimidazol-2-ylidene) was prepared by in situ thermolysis of 5 in the presence of [PdCl2(PhCN)(2)]. The three palladium(II) complexes were characterized by NMR and IRThe new N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex [PdCl2{(CN)(2)IMes}(PPh3)] (2) ({(CN)(2)IMes}: 4,5-dicyano-1,3-dimesitylimidazol-2-ylidene) and the NHC palladacycle [PdCl(dmba){(CN)(2)IMes}] (3) (dmba: N,N-dimethylbenzylamine) have been synthesized by thermolysis of 4,5-dicyano-1,3-dimesityl-2-(pentafluorophenyl) imidazoline (1) in the presence of suitable palladium(II) precursors. The acyclic complex 2 was formed by ligand exchange using the mononuclear precursor [PdCl2(PPh3)(2)] and the palladacycle 3 was formed by cleavage of the dinuclear chloro-bridged precursor [Pd(mu-Cl)(dmba)](2). The new NHC precursor 1-benzyl-4,5-dicyano-2-(pentafluorophenyl)-3-picolylimidazoline (5) was formed by condensation of pentafluorobenzaldehyde with N-benzyl-N'-picolyldiaminomaleonitrile (4). The NHC palladacycle [PdCl2{(CN)(2)IBzPic}] (6) ({(CN)(2)IBzPic}: 1-benzyl-4,5-dicyano-3-picolylimidazol-2-ylidene) was prepared by in situ thermolysis of 5 in the presence of [PdCl2(PhCN)(2)]. The three palladium(II) complexes were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. In addition, the molecular structures of 2 and 3 were determined by X-ray diffraction. The pi-acidity of (CN)(2)IBzPic was compared with (CN)(2)IMes and perviously reported pi-acidic imidazol-2-ylidenes by NBO analysis. The Mizoroki-Heck (MH) reactions of various aryl halides with n-butyl acrylate were performed in the presence of complexes 2, 3 and 6. The new precatalysts showed high activity in the MH reactions giving good-to-excellent product yields with 0.1 mol-% pre-catalyst. The nature of the catalytically active species of 2, 3 and 6 was investigated by poisoning experiments with mercury and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that palladium nanoparticles formed from the precatalysts were involved in the catalytic process.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Heiko Baier, Philipp Metzner, Thomas Körzdörfer, Alexandra Kelling, Hans-Juergen Holdt
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/ejic.201402040
ISSN:1434-1948 (print)
ISSN:1099-0682 (online)
Parent Title (English):European journal of inorganic chemistry : a journal of ChemPubSoc Europe
Publisher:Wiley-VCH
Place of publication:Weinheim
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2014
Year of Completion:2014
Release Date:2017/03/27
Tag:Carbene ligands; Cross coupling; Homogeneous catalysis; Palladium
Issue:18
Pagenumber:9
First Page:2952
Last Page:2960
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Chemie
Peer Review:Referiert