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Cocoa Bean Proteins

  • The protein fractions of cocoa have been implicated influencing both the bioactive potential and sensory properties of cocoa and cocoa products. The objective of the present review is to show the impact of different stages of cultivation and processing with regard to the changes induced in the protein fractions. Special focus has been laid on the major seed storage proteins throughout the different stages of processing. The study starts with classical introduction of the extraction and the characterization methods used, while addressing classification approaches of cocoa proteins evolved during the timeline. The changes in protein composition during ripening and maturation of cocoa seeds, together with the possible modifications during the post-harvest processing (fermentation, drying, and roasting), have been documented. Finally, the bioactive potential arising directly or indirectly from cocoa proteins has been elucidated. The “state of the art” suggests that exploration of other potentially bioactive components in cocoa needs to beThe protein fractions of cocoa have been implicated influencing both the bioactive potential and sensory properties of cocoa and cocoa products. The objective of the present review is to show the impact of different stages of cultivation and processing with regard to the changes induced in the protein fractions. Special focus has been laid on the major seed storage proteins throughout the different stages of processing. The study starts with classical introduction of the extraction and the characterization methods used, while addressing classification approaches of cocoa proteins evolved during the timeline. The changes in protein composition during ripening and maturation of cocoa seeds, together with the possible modifications during the post-harvest processing (fermentation, drying, and roasting), have been documented. Finally, the bioactive potential arising directly or indirectly from cocoa proteins has been elucidated. The “state of the art” suggests that exploration of other potentially bioactive components in cocoa needs to be undertaken, while considering the complexity of reaction products occurring during the roasting phase of the post-harvest processing. Finally, the utilization of partially processed cocoa beans (e.g., fermented, conciliatory thermal treatment) can be recommended, providing a large reservoir of bioactive potentials arising from the protein components that could be instrumented in functionalizing foods.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Harshadrai M. RawelORCiDGND, Gerd Huschek, Sorel Sagu TchewonpiORCiD, Thomas Homann
DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020428
ISSN:2072-6643
Parent Title (English):Nutrients
Subtitle (English):Characterization, Changes and Modifications due to Ripening and Post-Harvest Processing
Publisher:Molecular Diversity Preservation International
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Date of first Publication:2019/02/19
Year of Completion:2019
Release Date:2019/03/13
Tag:bioactive peptides; classification; cocoa processing; cocoa proteins; extraction and characterization methods; fermentation-related enzymes; heath potentials; protein–phenol interactions
Volume:11
Issue:2
Pagenumber:20
Funder:Universität Potsdam
Grant Number:PA 2019_18
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit
Peer Review:Referiert
Grantor:Publikationsfonds der Universität Potsdam
Publication Way:Open Access
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung, 4.0 International
Notes extern:Zweitveröffentlichung in der Schriftenreihe Postprints der Universität Potsdam : Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe ; 681