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Toward an epidemiology of poststroke spasticity

  • Poststroke spasticity (PSS)-related disability is emerging as a significant health issue for stroke survivors. There is a need for predictors and early identification of PSS in order to minimize complications and maladaptation from spasticity. Reviewing the literature on stroke and upper motor neuron syndrome, spasticity, contracture, and increased muscle tone measured with the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Tone Assessment Scale provided data on the dynamic time course of PSS. Prevalence estimates of PSS were highly variable, ranging from 4% to 42.6%, with the prevalence of disabling spasticity ranging from 2% to 13%. Data on phases of the PSS continuum revealed evidence of PSS in 4% to 27% of those in the early time course (1-4 weeks poststroke), 19% to 26.7% of those in the postacute phase (1-3 months poststroke), and 17% to 42.6% of those in the chronic phase (>3 months poststroke). Data also identified key risk factors associated with the development of spasticity, including lower Barthel Index scores, severe degree of paresis,Poststroke spasticity (PSS)-related disability is emerging as a significant health issue for stroke survivors. There is a need for predictors and early identification of PSS in order to minimize complications and maladaptation from spasticity. Reviewing the literature on stroke and upper motor neuron syndrome, spasticity, contracture, and increased muscle tone measured with the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Tone Assessment Scale provided data on the dynamic time course of PSS. Prevalence estimates of PSS were highly variable, ranging from 4% to 42.6%, with the prevalence of disabling spasticity ranging from 2% to 13%. Data on phases of the PSS continuum revealed evidence of PSS in 4% to 27% of those in the early time course (1-4 weeks poststroke), 19% to 26.7% of those in the postacute phase (1-3 months poststroke), and 17% to 42.6% of those in the chronic phase (>3 months poststroke). Data also identified key risk factors associated with the development of spasticity, including lower Barthel Index scores, severe degree of paresis, stroke-related pain, and sensory deficits. Although such indices could be regarded as predictors of PSS and thus enable early identification and treatment, the different measures of PSS used in those studies limit the strength of the findings. To optimize evaluation in the different phases of care, the best possible assessment of PSS would make use of a combination of indicators for clinical impairment, motor performance, activity level, quality of life, and patient-reported outcome measures. Applying these recommended measures, as well as increasing our knowledge of the physiologic predictors of PSS, will enable us to perform clinical and epidemiologic studies that will facilitate identification and early, multimodal treatment.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Jörg Wissel, Aubrey Manack, Michael Brainin
ISSN:0028-3878 (print)
Parent Title (English):Neurology : official journal of the American Academy of Neurology
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Place of publication:Philadelphia
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2013
Year of Completion:2013
Release Date:2017/03/26
Volume:80
Issue:1
Pagenumber:7
First Page:S13
Last Page:S19
Funder:Allergan, Inc.; Merz Pharmaceuticals; Medtronic; Ipsen Pharma; Boehringer Ingelheim; Pfizer, Inc.; EVER Neuro Pharma; Takeda; Life Science Krems; European Research Foundation; European Commission DG SANCO (Public Health)
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Biochemie und Biologie
Peer Review:Referiert