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Phytotyping(4D): a light-field imaging system for non-invasive and accurate monitoring of spatio-temporal plant growth

  • Integrative studies of plant growth require spatially and temporally resolved information from high-throughput imaging systems. However, analysis and interpretation of conventional two-dimensional images is complicated by the three-dimensional nature of shoot architecture and by changes in leaf position over time, termed hyponasty. To solve this problem, Phytotyping(4D) uses a light-field camera that simultaneously provides a focus image and a depth image, which contains distance information about the object surface. Our automated pipeline segments the focus images, integrates depth information to reconstruct the three-dimensional architecture, and analyses time series to provide information about the relative expansion rate, the timing of leaf appearance, hyponastic movement, and shape for individual leaves and the whole rosette. Phytotyping(4D) was calibrated and validated using discs of known sizes, and plants tilted at various orientations. Information from this analysis was integrated into the pipeline to allow error assessmentIntegrative studies of plant growth require spatially and temporally resolved information from high-throughput imaging systems. However, analysis and interpretation of conventional two-dimensional images is complicated by the three-dimensional nature of shoot architecture and by changes in leaf position over time, termed hyponasty. To solve this problem, Phytotyping(4D) uses a light-field camera that simultaneously provides a focus image and a depth image, which contains distance information about the object surface. Our automated pipeline segments the focus images, integrates depth information to reconstruct the three-dimensional architecture, and analyses time series to provide information about the relative expansion rate, the timing of leaf appearance, hyponastic movement, and shape for individual leaves and the whole rosette. Phytotyping(4D) was calibrated and validated using discs of known sizes, and plants tilted at various orientations. Information from this analysis was integrated into the pipeline to allow error assessment during routine operation. To illustrate the utility of Phytotyping(4D), we compare diurnal changes in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type Col-0 and the starchless pgm mutant. Compared to Col-0, pgm showed very low relative expansion rate in the second half of the night, a transiently increased relative expansion rate at the onset of light period, and smaller hyponastic movement including delayed movement after dusk, both at the level of the rosette and individual leaves. Our study introduces light-field camera systems as a tool to accurately measure morphological and growth-related features in plants. Significance Statement Phytotyping(4D) is a non-invasive and accurate imaging system that combines a 3D light-field camera with an automated pipeline, which provides validated measurements of growth, movement, and other morphological features at the rosette and single-leaf level. In a case study in which we investigated the link between starch and growth, we demonstrated that Phytotyping(4D) is a key step towards bridging the gap between phenotypic observations and the rich genetic and metabolic knowledge.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Federico Apelt, David BreuerGND, Zoran NikoloskiORCiDGND, Mark Stitt, Friedrich Kragler
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12833
ISSN:0960-7412 (print)
ISSN:1365-313X (online)
Pubmed Id:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=25801304
Parent Title (English):The plant journal
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
Place of publication:Hoboken
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2015
Year of Completion:2015
Release Date:2017/03/27
Tag:3D imaging; Arabidopsis thaliana; hyponasty; light-field camera; pgm; plant growth; technical advance
Volume:82
Issue:4
Pagenumber:14
First Page:693
Last Page:706
Funder:Max Planck Society; European Union (collaborative project TiMet) [245143]; International Max Planck Research School
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Biochemie und Biologie
Peer Review:Referiert