Extended and continuous decline in effective population size results in low genomic diversity in the world's rarest hyena species, the brown hyena

  • Hyenas (family Hyaenidae), as the sister group to cats (family Felidae), represent a deeply diverging branch within the cat-like carnivores (Feliformia). With an estimated population size of <10,000 individuals worldwide, the brown hyena (Parahyaena brunnea) represents the rarest of the four extant hyena species and has been listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN. Here, we report a high-coverage genome from a captive bred brown hyena and both mitochondrial and low-coverage nuclear genomes of 14 wild-caught brown hyena individuals from across southern Africa. We find that brown hyena harbor extremely low genetic diversity on both the mitochondrial and nuclear level, most likely resulting from a continuous and ongoing decline in effective population size that started similar to 1 Ma and dramatically accelerated towards the end of the Pleistocene. Despite the strikingly low genetic diversity, we find no evidence of inbreeding within the captive bred individual and reveal phylogeographic structure, suggesting the existence of severalHyenas (family Hyaenidae), as the sister group to cats (family Felidae), represent a deeply diverging branch within the cat-like carnivores (Feliformia). With an estimated population size of <10,000 individuals worldwide, the brown hyena (Parahyaena brunnea) represents the rarest of the four extant hyena species and has been listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN. Here, we report a high-coverage genome from a captive bred brown hyena and both mitochondrial and low-coverage nuclear genomes of 14 wild-caught brown hyena individuals from across southern Africa. We find that brown hyena harbor extremely low genetic diversity on both the mitochondrial and nuclear level, most likely resulting from a continuous and ongoing decline in effective population size that started similar to 1 Ma and dramatically accelerated towards the end of the Pleistocene. Despite the strikingly low genetic diversity, we find no evidence of inbreeding within the captive bred individual and reveal phylogeographic structure, suggesting the existence of several potential subpopulations within the species.show moreshow less

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Author:Michael V. WestburyORCiDGND, Stefanie HartmannGND, Axel BarlowORCiDGND, Ingrid Wiesel, Viyanna Leo, Rebecca Welch, Daniel M. Parker, Florian Sicks, Arne Ludwig, Love Dalen, Michael HofreiterORCiDGND
URN:urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus4-414132
DOI:https://doi.org/10.25932/publishup-41413
ISSN:1866-8372
Parent Title (English):Postprints der Universität Potsdam : Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe
Series (Serial Number):Postprints der Universität Potsdam : Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe (589)
Document Type:Postprint
Language:English
Date of first Publication:2019/02/12
Year of Completion:2018
Publishing Institution:Universität Potsdam
Release Date:2019/02/12
Tag:diversity; evolution; genomics; hyena; population genomics
Issue:589
Pagenumber:13
Source:Molecular Biology and Evolution 35 (2018) 5, pp. 1225–1237 DOI 10.1093/molbev/msy037
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Peer Review:Referiert
Publication Way:Open Access
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung, Nicht kommerziell 4.0 International