The interaction between the dopamine transporter gene and age at onset in relation to tobacco and alcohol use among 19-year-olds

  • Recent evidence suggests that heterogeneity in the age at onset could explain the inconsistent findings of association studies relating the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene with alcohol and nicotine consumption. The aim of this study was to examine interactions between two DAT1 polymorphisms and different initiation ages with regard to alcohol and tobacco consumption levels and dependence. Two hundred and ninety-one young adults (135 males, 156 females) participating in the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk were genotyped for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and rs27072 polymorphisms of DAT1. Age at initiation was assessed at age 15 and 19 years. Information about current alcohol and tobacco consumption was obtained at age 19 years using self-report measures and structured interviews. Results suggest that age at onset of intensive consumption moderated the association of the DAT1 gene with early adult substance use and dependence, revealing a DAT1 effect only among individuals homozygous for the 10r allele of theRecent evidence suggests that heterogeneity in the age at onset could explain the inconsistent findings of association studies relating the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene with alcohol and nicotine consumption. The aim of this study was to examine interactions between two DAT1 polymorphisms and different initiation ages with regard to alcohol and tobacco consumption levels and dependence. Two hundred and ninety-one young adults (135 males, 156 females) participating in the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk were genotyped for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and rs27072 polymorphisms of DAT1. Age at initiation was assessed at age 15 and 19 years. Information about current alcohol and tobacco consumption was obtained at age 19 years using self-report measures and structured interviews. Results suggest that age at onset of intensive consumption moderated the association of the DAT1 gene with early adult substance use and dependence, revealing a DAT1 effect only among individuals homozygous for the 10r allele of the 40-bp VNTR who had started daily smoking or being intoxicated early in life. Equally, carriers of the T allele of the rs27072 polymorphism reporting an early age at first intoxication showed higher current alcohol consumption at age 19 years. In contrast, no interaction between rs27072 and the age at first cigarette with regard to later smoking was observed. These findings provide evidence that the DAT1 gene interacts with an early heavy or regular drug exposure of the maturing adolescent brain to predict substance (ab)use in young adulthood. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.show moreshow less

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Author:Brigitte Schmid, Dorothea Blomeyer, Katja Becker, Jens Treutlein, Ulrich S. Zimmermann, Arlette F. Buchmann, Martin H. Schmidt, Günter EsserGND, Tobias Banaschewski, Marcella Rietschel, Manfred Laucht
URL:http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/issn?DESCRIPTOR=PRINTISSN&VALUE=1355-6215
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1369-1600.2009.00171.x
ISSN:1355-6215
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2009
Year of Completion:2009
Release Date:2017/03/25
Source:Addiction biology. - ISSN 1355-6215. - 14 (2009), 4, S. 489 - 499
Organizational units:Humanwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Strukturbereich Kognitionswissenschaften / Department Psychologie
Peer Review:Referiert