On the locus of training gains in research on the plasticity of fluid intelligence in old age

  • Cognitive training research has shown that many older adults have a substantial reserve capacity in fluid intelligence. Little is known, however, about the locus of plasticity. Two studies were conducted to examine whether training gains in fluid abilities are critically dependent on experimenter-guided training and/or whether older adults can achieve similar improvements by themselves on the basis of cognitive skills already available in their repertoire. Several comparisons were made: (a) between test performances after trainer-guided training in ability-specific cognitive skills and after self-guided retest practice (without feedback), (b) between performances under speeded and power conditions of assessment, (c) between performances on easy and difficult items, and (d) between the relative numbers of correct and wrong answers. Results suggest that a large share of the training improvement shown by the elderly can plausibly be explained as the result of the activation and practice of cognitive skills already available in their repeCognitive training research has shown that many older adults have a substantial reserve capacity in fluid intelligence. Little is known, however, about the locus of plasticity. Two studies were conducted to examine whether training gains in fluid abilities are critically dependent on experimenter-guided training and/or whether older adults can achieve similar improvements by themselves on the basis of cognitive skills already available in their repertoire. Several comparisons were made: (a) between test performances after trainer-guided training in ability-specific cognitive skills and after self-guided retest practice (without feedback), (b) between performances under speeded and power conditions of assessment, (c) between performances on easy and difficult items, and (d) between the relative numbers of correct and wrong answers. Results suggest that a large share of the training improvement shown by the elderly can plausibly be explained as the result of the activation and practice of cognitive skills already available in their repertoire. The results also have implications for educational practice, pointing to the appropriateness of strategies of self-directed learning for many elderly adults.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Paul B. Baltes, Reinhold Kliegl, Freya Dittmann-Kohli
URN:urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus-40288
Series (Serial Number):Postprints der Universität Potsdam : Humanwissenschaftliche Reihe, ISSN 1866-8364 (paper 151)
Document Type:Postprint
Language:English
Date of Publication (online):2009/12/22
Year of Completion:1988
Publishing Institution:Universität Potsdam
Release Date:2009/12/22
Source:Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 (1988) 3, S. 392-400, ISSN 1939-2176, DOI 10.1037/0022-0663.80.3.392
Organizational units:Humanwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Psychologie
Dewey Decimal Classification:1 Philosophie und Psychologie / 15 Psychologie / 150 Psychologie
Licence (German):License LogoKeine Nutzungslizenz vergeben - es gilt das deutsche Urheberrecht
Notes extern:
The original publication is within the university network available at web.ebscohost.com:
Journal of Educational Psychology. - 80 (1988) Issue 3, p. 392-400
ISSN 1939-2176
DOI 10.1037/0022-0663.80.3.392